Computational Investigation of Effects of Expanded Metal Foils on the Lightning Protection Performance of a Composite Rotor Blade

Abstract

Lightning is one of the most important threats to the safe operation of an aircraft. Rotorcraft can experience lightning strikes on the main rotor blades and tail rotor blades which can seriously affect the rotorcraft and its components in several ways. When lightning strikes a rotor blade made of composite material, electrical–thermal multi-physical phenomena such as the Joule heating effect occur. In this study, an electrical-thermal computational simulation of lightning strikes on composite rotor blades was performed. The simulation analyzed various situations including the presence of a lightning protection system on the composite rotor blade. Emphasis was placed on the effects of geometric parameters of expanded metal foil on the lightning protection performance. In addition, the effects of curvature on thermal and electrical response were investigated. The thermally damaged area was found to substantially increase in inner layers compared to the flat plate case.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16
Fig. 17
Fig. 18
Fig. 19
Fig. 20
Fig. 21
Fig. 22
Fig. 23

References

  1. 1.

    Wilkinson JM, Wells H, Field PR (2013) Investigation and prediction of helicopter-triggered lightning over the North Sea. Meteorol Appl 20(1):94–106

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Chemartin L, Lalande P, Peyrou B, Chazottes A, Elias PQ, Delalondre C, Cheron BG, Lago F (2012) Direct effects of lightning on aircraft structure: analysis of the thermal, electrical and mechanical constraints. Aerospacelab 2012:1–15

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Han SH (2005) Certification of aircraft system and avionics equipment against lightning indirect effect. Aerosp Eng Technol 4(1):248–259

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Fisher F, Plumer JA, Perala RA (1989) Aircraft lightning protection handbook. Lightning Technologies Inc., Pittsfield

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Gagné M, Therriault D (2014) Lightning strike protection of composites. Prog Aerosp Sci 64:1–16

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Kim JJ, Baek ST, Song DG, Myong RS (2016) Computational simulation of lightning strike on aircraft and design of lightning protection system. J Korean Soc Aeronaut Space Sci 44(12):1071–1086

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Lalande P, Bondiou-Clergerie A, Laroche P (1999) Computations of the initial discharge initiation zones on aircraft or helicopter. In: 1999 International Conference on Lightning and Static Electricity (ICOLSE), Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale

  8. 8.

    Jeong DY, Yang HD (2016) A study on the direct effect of lightning on structures and systems of aircraft. J Aerosp Syst Eng 10(2):41–45

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Jeong DY, Yang HD (2017) A study on lightning test of main rotor blade. Soc Aerosp Syst Eng 2017:92–94

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Guo Y, Xu Y, Wang Q, Dong Q, Yi Z, Jia Y (2019) Eliminating lightning strike damage to carbon fiber composite structures in Zone 2 of aircraft by NI-coated carbon fiber nonwoven veils. Compos Sci Technol 169:95–102

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Zhang J, Zhang X, Cheng X, Hei Y, Xing L, Li Z (2019) Lightning strike damage on the composite laminates with carbon nanotube films: protection effect and damage mechanism. Compos Part B 168:342–352

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Chu H, Xia Q, Zhang Z, Liu Y, Leng J (2018) Sesame-cookie topography silver nanoparticles modified carbon nanotube paper for enhancing lightning strike protection. Carbon. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2018.11.022

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Alemour B, Badran O, Hassan MR (2019) A review of using conductive composite materials in solving lightning strike and ice accumulation problems in aviation. J Aerosp Technol Manag 11:e1919. https://doi.org/10.5028/jatm.v11.1022

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Hu T, Yu X (2019) Lightning performance of copper-mesh clad composite panels: Test and simulation. Coatings 9(11):727. https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9110727

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Guo Y, Xu Y, Zhang L, Wei X, Dong Q, Yi X, Jia Y (2019) Implementation of fiberglass in carbon fiber composites as an isolation layer that enhances lightning strike protection. Compos Sci Technol 174:117–124

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Guo Y, Xu Y, Wang Q, Dong Q, Yi X, Jia Y (2019) Enhanced lightning strike protection of carbon fiber composites using expanded foils with anisotropic electrical conductivity. Compos A Appl Sci Manuf 117:211–218

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Wang FS, Zhang Y, Ma XT, Wei Z, Gao JF (2019) Lightning ablation suppression of aircraft carbon/epoxy composite laminates by metal mesh. J Mater Sci Technol 35:2693–2704

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Ogasawara T, Hirano Y, Yoshimura A (2010) Coupled thermal–electrical analysis for carbon fiber/epoxy composites exposed to simulated lightning current. Compos A Appl Sci Manuf 41(8):973–981

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Ranjith R, Myong RS, Lee SW (2014) Computational investigation of lightning strike effects on aircraft components. Int J Aeronaut Space Sci 15(1):44–53

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Lee J, Lacy TE Jr, Pittman CU Jr, Mazzola MS (2018) Thermal response of carbon fiber epoxy laminates with metallic and nonmetallic protection layers to simulated lightning currents. Polym Compos 39(S4):E2149–E2166

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Morgan J (2013) Thermal simulation and testing of expanded metal foils used for lightning protection of composite aircraft structures. SAE Int J Aerosp 6(2):371–377

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Wang FS, Yu XS, Jia SQ, Li P (2018) Experimental and numerical study on residual strength of aircraft carbon/epoxy composite after lightning strike. Aerosp Sci Technol 75:304–314

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Chen H, Wang FS, Ma XT, Yue ZF (2018) The coupling mechanism and damage prediction of carbon fiber/epoxy composites exposed to lightning current. Compos Struct 203:436–445

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Wang F, Ma X, Zhang Y, Jia S (2018) Lightning damage testing of aircraft composite-reinforced panels and its metal protection structures. Appl Sci 8(10):1791–1801

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Wan G, Dong Q, Zhi J, Guo Y, Yi X, Jia Y (2019) Analysis on electrical and thermal conduction of carbon fiber composites under lightning based on electrical-thermal-chemical coupling and arc heating models. Compos Struct 229:111486

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Wang Y, Zhupanska OI (2015) Lightning strike thermal damage model for glass fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites and its application to wind turbine blades. Compos Struct 132:1182–1191

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Millen SLJ, Murphy A, Abdelal G, Catalanotti G (2019) Sequential finite element modelling of lightning arc plasma and composite specimen thermal-electric damage. Comput Struct 222:48–62

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Xiao Y, Yin J, Li S, Yao X, Chang F (2018) Characterization of composite laminate lightning strike thermal-mechanical coupling damage based on progressive damage Model. In: 7th International conference on energy, environment and sustainable development (ICEESD 2018)

  29. 29.

    Foster P, Abdelal G, Murphy A (2019) Quantifying the influence of lightning strike pressure loading on composite specimen damage. Appl Compos Mater 26(1):115–137

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Karch C, Arteiro A, Camanho PP (2019) Modelling mechanical lightning loads in carbon Þbre-reinforced polymers. Int J Solids Struct 162:217–243

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Millen SLJ, Murphy A, Catalanotti G, Abdelal G (2019) Coupled thermal-mechanical progressive damage model with strain and heating rate effects for lightning strike damage assessment. Appl Compos Mater 26(5–6):1437–1459

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Nunes de Souza LF (2007) Modeling of direct effects of lightning on composite structures of aircraft. In: 2007 International Conference on Lightning and Static Electricity (ICOLSE), PPR59, Paris

  33. 33.

    Espejel JFT, Khodaei ZS (2017) Lightning strike simulation in composite structures. Key Eng Mater 754:181–184

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Rupke E (2002) Lightning direct effects handbook. In: Lightning Technologies Inc., AGATE-WP3.1-031027-043-Design Guideline, Pittsfield

  35. 35.

    Morgan D, Hardwick CJ, Haigh SJ, Meakins AJ (2012) The interaction of lightning with aircraft and the challenges of lightning testing. Aerospacelab 2012:1–10

    Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Dassault Systémes Simulia Corp (2019) Abaqus 6.14 analysis user’s guide. Online Documentation. https://www.sharcnet.ca/Software/Abaqus/6.14.2/v6.14/books/usb/default.htm. Accessed 31 May 2019

  37. 37.

    Kumar D (2013) Design and analysis of composite rotor blades for active/passive vibration reduction. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Michigan

  38. 38.

    Rohl P, Dorman P, Sutton M, Kumar D, Cesnik CES (2012) A multidisciplinary design environment for composite rotor blades. In: 53rd AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference 20th AIAA/ASME/AHS Adaptive Structures Conference 14th AIAA, p 1842

  39. 39.

    Bousman, WG (2003) Aerodynamic characteristics of SC1095 and SC1094 R8 airfoils. In: NASA/TP–2003-212265

  40. 40.

    Abdelal G, Murphy A (2014) Nonlinear numerical modelling of lightning strike effect on composite panels with temperature dependent material properties. Compos Struct 109:268–278

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Lee SH, Park GS, Kim JG, Park JG (2019) Evaluation system for ablative material in a high-temperature torch. Int J Aeronaut Space Sci. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42405-019-00185-2

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Korea Institute of Aviation Safety Technology (KIAST) Grant funded by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (19CHTR-C128889-03), South Korea.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Rho Shin Myong.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kang, Y.S., Park, S.W., Roh, J.S. et al. Computational Investigation of Effects of Expanded Metal Foils on the Lightning Protection Performance of a Composite Rotor Blade. Int. J. Aeronaut. Space Sci. 22, 203–221 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42405-020-00288-1

Download citation

Keywords

  • Lightning protection system
  • Composite
  • Rotor blade
  • Coupled electrical-thermal
  • Expanded metal foil