Thermal Analysis for Simulation of Metal Additive Manufacturing Process Considering Temperature- and History-Dependent Material Properties

Abstract

Additive manufacturing (AM) technology is increasingly being used in the aerospace industry due to its advantages for aerospace components such as reduction of weight. A deep understanding of the behavior and properties of additively manufactured materials or parts is required to effectively carry out the certification process which is inevitable for aerospace components. However, since AM has so many parameters that affect the performance of products, the help of high-fidelity process simulation techniques is essential to fully analyze and understand their effects. In this research, we propose a new method to effectively implement the thermal analysis for process simulations of laser powder-bed fusion technique, a representative AM technique for metal materials, using existing commercial finite element analysis software. Thermal analysis for simulations of AM process is performed and the melt pool size is compared with test results to verify the accuracy of the simulation. In AM process simulations, material properties may vary significantly with temperature, and they are also dependent on the temperature history of the material because whether the current state is a powder or solid state is determined by the maximum temperature value in the past temperature history. Therefore, in this paper, user-defined subroutines and field variables are implemented so that the temperature history of each integration point for the finite element analysis can be properly tracked and appropriate material properties can be assigned accordingly. Using the proposed methods, thermal analysis for AM process simulations can be performed successfully with good accuracy compared with the existing test results.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13

References

  1. 1.

    Wohlers TT, Wohlers Associates, Campbell I, Caffrey T, Diegel O, Kowen J, Wohlers Report (2018) 3D printing and additive manufacturing state of the industry. Annual Worldwide Progress Report, Wohlers Associates

  2. 2.

    Yakout M, Cadamuro A, Elbestawi MA, Veldhuis SC (2017) The selection of process parameters in additive manufacturing for aerospace alloys. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 92:2081–2098

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Zhang Z, Huang Y, Kasinathan AR, Shahabad SI, Ali U, Mahmoodkhani Y, Toyserkani E (2019) 3-Dimensional heat transfer modelling for laser powder-bed fusion additive manufacturing with volumetric heat sources based on varied thermal conductivity and absorptivity. Opti Laser Technol 109(2019):297–312

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Foroozmehr A, Badrossamay M, Foroozmehr E, Golabi S (2016) “Finite element simulation of selective laser melting process considering optical penetration depth of laser in powder bed. Mater Des 89:255–263

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Li Y, Dongdong Gu (2014) Parametric analysis of thermal behavior during selective laser melting additive manufacturing of aluminum alloy powder. Mater Des 63:856–867

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Keller N, Ploshikhin V (2014) New method for fast predictions of residual stress and distortion of AM parts. In: Conference: solid freeform fabrication symposium, Austin, Texas, USA, vol 25, pp 1229–1237

  7. 7.

    Zhang D, Cai Q, Liu J, Zhang L, Li R (2010) Select laser melting of W-Ni-Fe powders: simulation and experimental study. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 51(5):649–658

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Dai D, Gu D (2014) Thermal behavior and densification mechanism during selective laser melting of copper matrix composites: simulation and experiments. Mater Des 55:482–491

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Goldak J, Chakravarti A, Bibby M (1984) A new finite element model for welding heat sources. Metall Trans B 15(2):299–305

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Lee J-S (2010) Welding deformation analysis of plates using the inherent strain-based equivalent load method. J Weld Joi 28(2):39–46

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Standardization for Temperatur (2005) Standardization for temperature distribution prediction of the arc weld using FEA. J Weld Join 23(6):1–7

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Bang H-S, Chong-In Oh, Ro C-S, Park C-S, Bang H-S (2007) Analysis of thermal and welding residual stress for hybrid welded joint by finite element method. J KWJS 25(6):565–570

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Öberg TT (1991) Computation of temperature distribution due to welding in piping systems. In: Mechanical effects of welding, international union of theoretical and applied mechanics (IUTAM) symposium, Luleå, Sweden, 10–14 June 1991

  14. 14.

    Roberts IA, Wang CJ, Esterlein R, Stanford M, Mynors DJ (2009) A three-dimensional finite element analysis of the temperature field during laser melting of metal powders in additive layer manufacturing. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 49:916–923

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    ABAQUS (2012) ABAQUS documentation. ABAQUS, Providence

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This research is supported by a Grant (17CHTR-C128889-01) from Establishment of Design and Manufacturing Certification Infrastructure on Rotorcraft Certification funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government and Korea Agency for Infrastructure Technology Advancement.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jeong Ho Kim.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Jeong, S.H., Park, E.G., Kang, J.W. et al. Thermal Analysis for Simulation of Metal Additive Manufacturing Process Considering Temperature- and History-Dependent Material Properties. Int. J. Aeronaut. Space Sci. 22, 52–63 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42405-020-00283-6

Download citation

Keywords

  • Additive manufacturing
  • Laser powder-bed fusion
  • Process simulation
  • Thermal analysis
  • Certification