Additive manufacturing (AM) technology is increasingly being used in the aerospace industry due to its advantages for aerospace components such as reduction of weight. A deep understanding of the behavior and properties of additively manufactured materials or parts is required to effectively carry out the certification process which is inevitable for aerospace components. However, since AM has so many parameters that affect the performance of products, the help of high-fidelity process simulation techniques is essential to fully analyze and understand their effects. In this research, we propose a new method to effectively implement the thermal analysis for process simulations of laser powder-bed fusion technique, a representative AM technique for metal materials, using existing commercial finite element analysis software. Thermal analysis for simulations of AM process is performed and the melt pool size is compared with test results to verify the accuracy of the simulation. In AM process simulations, material properties may vary significantly with temperature, and they are also dependent on the temperature history of the material because whether the current state is a powder or solid state is determined by the maximum temperature value in the past temperature history. Therefore, in this paper, user-defined subroutines and field variables are implemented so that the temperature history of each integration point for the finite element analysis can be properly tracked and appropriate material properties can be assigned accordingly. Using the proposed methods, thermal analysis for AM process simulations can be performed successfully with good accuracy compared with the existing test results.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Wohlers TT, Wohlers Associates, Campbell I, Caffrey T, Diegel O, Kowen J, Wohlers Report (2018) 3D printing and additive manufacturing state of the industry. Annual Worldwide Progress Report, Wohlers Associates
Yakout M, Cadamuro A, Elbestawi MA, Veldhuis SC (2017) The selection of process parameters in additive manufacturing for aerospace alloys. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 92:2081–2098
Zhang Z, Huang Y, Kasinathan AR, Shahabad SI, Ali U, Mahmoodkhani Y, Toyserkani E (2019) 3-Dimensional heat transfer modelling for laser powder-bed fusion additive manufacturing with volumetric heat sources based on varied thermal conductivity and absorptivity. Opti Laser Technol 109(2019):297–312
Foroozmehr A, Badrossamay M, Foroozmehr E, Golabi S (2016) “Finite element simulation of selective laser melting process considering optical penetration depth of laser in powder bed. Mater Des 89:255–263
Li Y, Dongdong Gu (2014) Parametric analysis of thermal behavior during selective laser melting additive manufacturing of aluminum alloy powder. Mater Des 63:856–867
Keller N, Ploshikhin V (2014) New method for fast predictions of residual stress and distortion of AM parts. In: Conference: solid freeform fabrication symposium, Austin, Texas, USA, vol 25, pp 1229–1237
Zhang D, Cai Q, Liu J, Zhang L, Li R (2010) Select laser melting of W-Ni-Fe powders: simulation and experimental study. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 51(5):649–658
Dai D, Gu D (2014) Thermal behavior and densification mechanism during selective laser melting of copper matrix composites: simulation and experiments. Mater Des 55:482–491
Goldak J, Chakravarti A, Bibby M (1984) A new finite element model for welding heat sources. Metall Trans B 15(2):299–305
Lee J-S (2010) Welding deformation analysis of plates using the inherent strain-based equivalent load method. J Weld Joi 28(2):39–46
Standardization for Temperatur (2005) Standardization for temperature distribution prediction of the arc weld using FEA. J Weld Join 23(6):1–7
Bang H-S, Chong-In Oh, Ro C-S, Park C-S, Bang H-S (2007) Analysis of thermal and welding residual stress for hybrid welded joint by finite element method. J KWJS 25(6):565–570
Öberg TT (1991) Computation of temperature distribution due to welding in piping systems. In: Mechanical effects of welding, international union of theoretical and applied mechanics (IUTAM) symposium, Luleå, Sweden, 10–14 June 1991
Roberts IA, Wang CJ, Esterlein R, Stanford M, Mynors DJ (2009) A three-dimensional finite element analysis of the temperature field during laser melting of metal powders in additive layer manufacturing. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 49:916–923
ABAQUS (2012) ABAQUS documentation. ABAQUS, Providence
This research is supported by a Grant (17CHTR-C128889-01) from Establishment of Design and Manufacturing Certification Infrastructure on Rotorcraft Certification funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government and Korea Agency for Infrastructure Technology Advancement.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Jeong, S.H., Park, E.G., Kang, J.W. et al. Thermal Analysis for Simulation of Metal Additive Manufacturing Process Considering Temperature- and History-Dependent Material Properties. Int. J. Aeronaut. Space Sci. 22, 52–63 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42405-020-00283-6
- Additive manufacturing
- Laser powder-bed fusion
- Process simulation
- Thermal analysis