Numerical Study on Density Gradient Carbon–Carbon Composite for Vertical Launching System

  • Jin-Young Yoon
  • Chun-Gon Kim
  • Juhwan Lim
Original Paper


This study presents new carbon–carbon (C/C) composite that has a density gradient within single material, and estimates its heat conduction performance by a numerical method. To address the high heat conduction of a high-density C/C, which can cause adhesion separation in the steel structures of vertical launching systems, density gradient carbon–carbon (DGCC) composite is proposed due to its exhibiting low thermal conductivity as well as excellent ablative resistance. DGCC is manufactured by hybridizing two different carbonization processes into a single carbon preform. One part exhibits a low density using phenolic resin carbonization to reduce heat conduction, and the other exhibits a high density using thermal gradient-chemical vapor infiltration for excellent ablative resistance. Numerical analysis for DGCC is performed with a heat conduction problem, and internal temperature distributions are estimated by the forward finite difference method. Material properties of the transition density layer, which is inevitably formed during DGCC manufacturing, are assumed to a combination of two density layers for numerical analysis. By comparing numerical results with experimental data, we validate that DGCC exhibits a low thermal conductivity, and it can serve as highly effective ablative material for vertical launching systems.


Density gradient carbon–carbon Low thermal conductivity Transition density layer Numerical analysis 


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Copyright information

© The Korean Society for Aeronautical & Space Sciences and Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Aerospace EngineeringKAISTDaejeonRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.The 1st R&D Institute, Agency for Defense DevelopmentDaejeonRepublic of Korea

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