Association of Metabolic Status with the Presence of Urinary Tract Stones Requiring Surgical Intervention


According to previous studies, the number of patients with urinary tract stones is increasing. An increase in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the aging of society are likely to be associated with this increase. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of markers of metabolic disorders in patients with urinary tract stones. This is a single-center, retrospective, cross-sectional study of 715 patients treated surgically for urinary tract stones. Demographic data, blood test measurements, and computed tomography findings were analyzed, and their incidence compared with the general population. A group receiving a single treatment was compared with a group receiving multiple treatments using chi-square tests and two-sample t tests. The mean age was 60.7 ± 14.1 years, and patients in their 60s formed the largest group. Obesity rate peaked at more than 40% in the 40–60-year-old age group; sarcopenia rate was the highest in patients in their 80s (34.1%). There were no differences in indicators of metabolic syndrome and sarcopenia between single and multiple treatments. Obesity and sarcopenia rates were higher in the patients undergoing surgery for urinary tract stones than in the general Japanese population. The prevalence of these two factors was distributed differently in different age groups (higher rates of obesity in the middle-aged group and higher rates of sarcopenia in the elderly group). It is possible that increased fat mass in the younger age group with age and lower activity and protein consumption has led to sarcopenia in the elderly group.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

Data Availability

Data are available at Saitama Medical University Hospital.


  1. 1.

    Sakamoto S, Miyazawa K, Yasui T, Iguchi T, Fujita M, Nishimatsu H, et al. Chronological changes in the epidemiological characteristics of upper urinary tract urolithiasis in Japan. Int J Urol. 2018;25:373–8.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Sakamoto S, Miyazawa K, Yasui T, Iguchi T, Fujita M, Nishimatsu H, et al. Chronological changes in epidemiological characteristics of lower urinary tract urolithiasis in Japan. Int J Urol. 2019;26:96–101.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Yasui T, Iguchi M, Suzuki S, Okada A, Itoh Y, Tozawa K, et al. Prevalence and epidemiologic characteristics of lower urinary tract stones in Japan. Urology. 2008;72:1001–5.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Trinchieri A. Epidemiology of urolithiasis. Arch Ital Urol Androl. 1996;68:203–49.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Kanauchi M, Kanauchi K. Proposal for an empirical Japanese diet score and the Japanese diet pyramid. Nutrients. 2019;11:E2741.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Tada N, Maruyama C, Koba S, Tanaka H, Birou S, Teramoto T, et al. Japanese dietary lifestyle and cardiovascular disease. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2011;18:723–34.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Della Guardia L, Roggi C, Cena H. Diet-induced acidosis and alkali supplementation. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2016;67:754–61.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Valente P, Castro H, Pereira I, et al. Metabolic syndrome and the composition of urinary calculi: is there any relation? Cent European J Urol. 2019;72:276–9.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    United Nations. World Population Prospects 2019. 2019. Accessed 21 May 2020.

  10. 10.

    Yasui T, Iguchi M, Suzuki S, Kohri K. Prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of urolithiasis in Japan: national trends between 1965 and 2005. Urology. 2008;71:209–13.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Rosenberg IH. Sarcopenia: origins and clinical relevance. Clin Geriatr Med. 2011;27:337–9.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Yoshida D, Suzuki T, Shimada H, Park H, Makizako H, Doi T, et al. Using two different algorithms to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2014;14:46–51.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Yoshimura N, Muraki S, Oka H, Iidaka T, Kodama R, Kawaguchi H, et al. Is osteoporosis a predictor for future sarcopenia or vice versa? Four-year observations between the second and third ROAD study surveys. Osteoporos Int. 2017;28:189–99.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Edwards MH, Dennison EM, Aihie Sayer A, Fielding R, Cooper C. Osteoporosis and sarcopenia in older age. Bone. 2015;80:126–30.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Arrabal-Martin M, Poyatos-Andujar A, Cano-García Mdel C, et al. The importance of calciuria as lithogenic factors in patients with osteopenia/osteoporosis. Int Urol Nephrol. 2015;47:445–9.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Kan H, Kimura Y, Hyogo H, Fukuhara T, Fujino H, Naeshiro N, et al. Non-invasive assessment of liver steatosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Hepatol Res. 2014;44:E420–7.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Hamaguchi Y, Kaido T, Okumura S, Kobayashi A, Hammad A, Tamai Y, et al. Proposal for new diagnostic criteria for low skeletal muscle mass based on computed tomography imaging in Asian adults. Nutrition. 2016;32:1200–5.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    National Institute of Health and Nutrition. National Health and Nutrition Survey. 2018. Accessed 21 May 2020.

  19. 19.

    Daudon M, Lacour B, Jungers P. Influence of body size on urinary stone composition in men and women. Urol Res. 2006;34:193–9.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Sakhaee K, Maalouf NM. Metabolic syndrome and uric acid nephrolithiasis. Semin Nephrol. 2008;28:174–80.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Ellison RC, Zhang Y, Wagenknecht LE, Eckfeldt JH, Hopkins PN, Pankow JS, et al. Relation of the metabolic syndrome to calcified atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary arteries and aorta. Am J Cardiol. 2005;95:1180–6.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Lampropoulos CE, Kalamara P, Konsta M, Papaioannou I, Papadima E, Antoniou Z, et al. Osteoporosis and vascular calcification in postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional study. Climacteric. 2016;19:303–7.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Weld KJ, Montiglio C, Morris MS, Bush AC, Cespedes RD. Shock wave lithotripsy success for renal stones based on patient and stone computed tomography characteristics. Urology. 2007;70:1043–6.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information




Conception and design: HY; acquisition of data: SI; analysis and interpretation of data: SI; drafting of the manuscript: SI; critical intellectual revisions: HY and CN; statistical analysis: SI; administrative, technical, or material support: TH; supervision: HA.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Shun Iwasa.

Ethics declarations

Ethics Approval and Consent to Participate

This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Saitama Medical University Hospital. Ethics board approval number is 18154.01. Informed consent was obtained in the form of opt-out.

Consent for Publication

Informed consent was obtained in the form of opt-out.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

This article is part of the Topical Collection on Medicine

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Iwasa, S., Yanaihara, H., Nishimura, C. et al. Association of Metabolic Status with the Presence of Urinary Tract Stones Requiring Surgical Intervention. SN Compr. Clin. Med. (2021).

Download citation


  • Aging
  • Malnutrition
  • Obesity
  • Sarcopenia
  • Urolithiasis