Estimation of the turbulent viscous shear stress in a centrifugal rotary blood pump by the large eddy particle image velocimetry method


The non-physiologic turbulent flows in centrifugal rotary blood pumps (RBPs) may result in complications such as the hemolysis and the platelet activation. Recent researches suggest that the turbulent viscous dissipation in the smallest eddies is the main factor of the blood trauma caused by the turbulent flow. The turbulent viscous shear stress (TVSS) was taken as the realistic physical force acting on the cells. However, limited by the temporal and spatial resolutions of the instrumentation currently available, very limited studies are available for the TVSS in the RBPs. In this paper, the large eddy particle image velocimetry (PIV) method is used to estimate the turbulent dissipation rate in the sub-grid scale, to investigate the effect of the TVSS on the blood trauma. Detailed flow characteristics, such as the relative velocity vectors, the estimated TVSS levels and the Kolmogorov length scales, are analyzed in three impeller phases at three constant flow rates (3 L/min, 5 L/min and 7 L/min). Over the measures range in this study, the maximum TVSS in the investigated RBP is lower than the reported critical value of stress. This study demonstrates that the large eddy PIV method is effective to evaluate the flow-dependent force on the cells. On the other hand, it is found that the TVSS is highly dependent on the flow behavior. Under severe off-design conditions, the complex flow characteristics, such as the flow separation and the vortical structures, will increase the TVSS. Thus, in order to reduce the hemolysis in the RBPs, the flow disturbance, induced by the departure of the incidence angle, should be avoided during the design of the RBPs.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. [1]

    Kirklin J. K., Naftel D. C., Pagani F. D. et al. Sixth INTERMACS annual report: A 10,000-patient database [J]. The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation, 2014, 33(6): 555–564.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. [2]

    Shah K. B., Kwakkel-van Erp J. M., Migliore C. et al. Scientific progress in heart and lung failure, mechanical circulatory support, and transplantation: Highlights from the journal of heart and lung transplantation [J]. The Journal of Heart and Lung Lung Transplantation, 2014, 33(3): 223–228.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. [3]

    Slaughter M. S., Rogers J. G., Milano C. A. et al. Advanced heart failure treated with continuous-flow left ventricular assist device [J]. New England Journal Medicine, 2009, 361(23): 2241–2251.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. [4]

    Hwang N. H. C., Normann N. A. Cardiovascular flow dynamics and measurements [M]. Baltimore, USA: University Park Press, 1977, 799–823.

    Google Scholar 

  5. [5]

    Leverett L. B., Hellums J. D., Alfrey C. P. et al. Red blood cell damage by shear stress [J]. Biophysical Journal, 1972, 12(3): 257–273.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. [6]

    Sutera S. P., Croce P. A., Mehrjardi M. Hemolysis and subhemolytic alterations of human RBC induced by turbulent shear flow [J]. Transactions American Society Artificial International Organs, 1972, 18(1): 335–341.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. [7]

    Ge L., Dasi L. P., Sotiropoulos F. et al. Characterization of hemodynamic forces induced by mechanical heart valves: Reynolds vs. viscous stresses [J]. Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 2008, 36(2): 276–297.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. [8]

    Yamane T., Nishida M., Kawamura H. et al. Flow visualization for the implantable ventricular assist device EVAHEART(A (R)) [J]. Journal of Artificial Organs, 2013, 16(1): 42–48.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. [9]

    Davidson P. Turbulence: An introduction for scientists and engineers [M]. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2015.

    Google Scholar 

  10. [10]

    Jones S. A. A relationship between Reynolds stresses and viscous dissipation-implications to red-cell damage [J]. Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 1995, 23(1): 21–28.

    MathSciNet  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. [11]

    Dooley P. N., Quinlan N. J. Effect of eddy length scale on mechanical loading of blood cells in turbulent flow [J]. Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 2009, 37(12): 2449–2458.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. [12]

    Morshed K. N., Bark J. R. D., Forleo M. et al. Theory to predict shear stress on cells in turbulent blood flow [J]. PloS One, 2014, 9(8): e105357.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. [13]

    Ozturk M., Papavassiliou D. V., Edgar A. An approach for assessing turbulent flow damage to blood in medical devices [J]. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 2017, 139(1): 011008.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. [14]

    Sheng J., Meng H., Fox R. O. A large eddy PIV method for turbulence dissipation rate estimation [J]. Chemical Engineering Science, 2000, 55(20): 4423–4434.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. [15]

    Li C. P., Lo C. W., Lu P. C. Estimation of viscous dissipative stresses induced by a mechanical heart valve using PIV data [J]. Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 2010, 38(3): 903–916.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. [16]

    Ha H., Lantz J., Haraldsson H. et al. Assessment of turbulent viscous stress using ICOSA 4D flow MRI for prediction of hemodynamic blood damage [J]. Scientific Reports, 2016, 11(6): 773–785

    Google Scholar 

  17. [17]

    Yen J. H., Chen S. F., Chern M. K. et al. The effect of turbulent viscous shear stress on red blood cell hemolysis [J]. Journal of Artificial Organs, 2014, 17(2): 178–185.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. [18]

    Luo X. W., Ji B., Zhuang B. T. et al. A miniature pump with a fluid dynamic bearing [J]. Science China Technological Sciences, 2012, 55(3): 795–801.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. [19]

    Li D., Wu Q., Liu S. et al. Lactic Dehydrogenase in the in vitro evaluation of hemolytic properties of ventricular assist device [J]. Artificial Organs, 2017, 41(11): E274–E284.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. [20]

    Najjari M. R., Hinke J. A., Bulusu K. V. et al. On the rheology of refractive-index-matched, non-Newtonian blood-analog fluids for PIV experiments [J]. Experiments in Fluids, 2016, 57(6): 632–642.

    Google Scholar 

  21. [21]

    Wernet M. P. Application of DPIV to study both steady state and transient turbomachinery flows [J]. Optics and Laser Technology, 2000, 32(7–8): 497–525

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. [22]

    Scarano F., Riethmuller M. L. Iterative multigrid approach in PIV image processing with discrete window offset [J]. Experiments in Fluids, 1999, 26(6): 513–523

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. [23]

    Luff J. D., Drouillard T., Rompage A. M. et al. Experimental uncertainties associated with particle image velocimetry (PIV) based vorticity algorithms [J]. Experiments in Fluids, 1999, 26(1–2): 36–54.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. [24]

    Johansen S. T., Wu J., Shyy W. Filter-based unsteady RANS computations [J]. International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, 2004, 25(1): 10–21

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. [25]

    Yu A., Ji B., Huang R. et al. Cavitation shedding dynamics around a hydrofoil simulated using a filter-based density corrected model [J]. Science China Technological Sciences, 2015, 58(5): 864–869.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. [26]

    Day S. W., Mcdaniel J. C. PIV measurements of flow in a centrifugal blood pump: Steady flow [J]. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 2005, 127(2): 244–253

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. [27]

    Tennekes H., Lumley J. A first course in turbulence [J]. Cambirdge, USA: MIT Press, 1972, 1153–1176

    Google Scholar 

  28. [28]

    Pedersen N., Larsen P. S., Jacobsen C. B. Flow in a centrifugal pump impeller at design and off-design conditions-part I: Particle image velocimetry (PIV) and laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) measurements [J]. Journal of Fluids Engineering, 2003, 125(1): 61–72.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


This work was supported by the Prince Charles Hospital Foundation (Grant No. PRO2014-08), the National Health and Medical Research Council Centre for Research Excellence (Grant No. APP1079421), the Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology and the independent research fund of Tsinghua University (Grant No. 20141081265).

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Xian-wu Luo.

Additional information

Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51536008), the National Key R&D Program of China (Grant No. 2018YFB0606101).

Biography: Jing-jing Ji (1990-), Female, Ph. D.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Ji, J., Li, H., Wu, Q. et al. Estimation of the turbulent viscous shear stress in a centrifugal rotary blood pump by the large eddy particle image velocimetry method. J Hydrodyn 32, 486–496 (2020).

Download citation

Key words

  • Rotary blood pump
  • turbulent flow
  • turbulent viscous shear stress
  • large eddy particle image velocimetry
  • flow separation