To improve the controllability for the evaporation process of fuel spray impinging on the cylinder wall, an experimental study on the development of morphological process of different fuel droplets on aluminium alloy surfaces is carried out. The metal surfaces with different wettability are prepared by laser etching and chemical etching for the experiments. In total, three different fuels are tested and compared under different surface temperatures, including diesel, n-butanol and dimethyl carbonate (DMC). The results show that under a lower wall temperature, the surface wettability, viscosity and surface tension of the fuels have significant effects on spreading and rebounding behaviour of the droplets. As the wall temperature rises over the boiling points of the fuel but below its Leidenfrost temperature, the contact angles between the fuels and surfaces are varying according to the surface wettability, boiling point and Leidenfrost temperature of the fuels. When the temperature of the surface exceeds the Leidenfrost temperature of all the fuels, after impacting the surfaces, different fuel droplets tend to have the same development pattern, regardless of the surface wettability. The rebound level is mainly affected by the amount of fuel vapour generated during the wall-hitting process. Viscosity, surface tension and other properties of the fuel have little effect on post-impacting behaviour of the droplet when the wall temperature is higher than the Leidenfrost temperature of the fuel.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Gan S Y, Ng H K, Pang K M. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion: Implementation and effects on pollutants in direct injection diesel engines. Applied Energy, 2011, 88, 559–567.
Dumitrescu C E, Neill W S, Guo S H, Hosseini V, Chippior W L. Fuel property effects on PCCI combustion in a heavy-duty diesel engine. ASME 2010 Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall Technical Conference, San Antonio, USA, 2010, 255–264.
Xu Z, Jia M, Xu G F, Li Y P, Lu X C. Potential for reducing emissions in reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) engine by fueling syngas and diesel. Energy & Fuels, 2018, 32, 3869–3882.
Tompkins B T, Jacobs T J. Low-temperature combustion with biodiesel: Its enabling features in improving efficiency and emissions. Energy & Fuels, 2013, 27, 2794–2803.
Satyanarayana M, Muraleedharan C. Experimental studies on performance and emission characteristics of neat preheated vegetable oils in a DI diesel engine. Energy Sources, 2012, 34, 1710–1722.
Du J K, Sun W C, Guo L, Xiao S L, Tan M Z, Li G L. Experimental study on fuel economies and emissions of direct-injection premixed combustion engine fueled with gasoline/diesel blends. Energy Conversion and Management, 2015, 100, 300–309.
Sun W C, Wang Q, Guo L, Cheng P, Li D G, Yan Y Y. Influence of biodiesel/diesel blends on particle size distribution of CI engine under steady/transient conditions. Fuel, 2019, 245, 336–344.
Brijesh P, Harshvardhan A, Sreedhara S. A study of combustion and emissions characteristics of a compression ignition engine processes using a numerical tool. International Journal of Advances in Engineering Sciences & Applied Mathematics, 2014, 6, 17–30.
Su W H, Liu B, Wang H, Huang H Z. Effects of multi-Injection mode on diesel homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion. Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines & Power, 2007, 129, 230–238.
Zhang H, Sun W C, Guo L, Yan Y Y, Cheng P, Wang Q, Combustion visualization for coal-based synthetic fuel and its mixture with oxygenated fuels achieved using two-color method. Energy Procedia, 2019, 160, 372–380.
Huang Y H, Hong G, Huang R H. Effect of injection timing on mixture formation and combustion in an ethanol direct injection plus gasoline port injection (EDI+GPI) engine. Energy, 2016, 111, 92–103.
Takata Y, Hidaka S, Cao J, Nakamura T, Yamamoto H, Masuda M. Effect of surface wettability on boiling and evaporation. Energy, 2005, 30, 209–220.
Wong S C, Lin Y C. Effect of copper surface wettability on the evaporation performance: Tests in a flat-plate heat pipe with visualization. International Journal of Heat & Mass Transfer, 2011, 54, 3921–3926.
Teodori E, Moita A S, Moura M, Pontes P, Moreira A. Application of bioinspired superhydrophobic surfaces in two-phase, heat transfer experiments. Journal of Bionic Engineering, 2017, 14, 506–519.
Wang G Y, Guo Z G, Liu W M. Interfacial effects of super-hydrophobic plant surfaces: A review. Journal of Bionic Engineering, 2014, 11, 325–345.
Liu Y, Li X L, Yan Y Y, Han Z W, Ren L Q. Anti-icing performance of superhydrophobic aluminum alloy surface and its rebounding mechanism of droplet under super-cold conditions. Surface and Coatings Technology, 2017, 331, 7–14.
Cieśliński J T, Krygier K A. Sessile droplet contact angle of water-Al2O3, water-TiO2 and water-Cu nanofluids. Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 2014, 59, 258–263.
Sikalo S, Marengo M, Tropea C, Ganic E N. Analysis of impact of droplets on horizontal surfaces. Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 2002, 25, 503–510.
Khavari M, Sun C, Lohsec D, Tran T. Fingering patterns during droplet impact on heated surfaces. Soft Matter, 2015, 11, 3298–3303.
Kompinsky E, Dolan G, Sher E. Experimental study on the dynamics of binary fuel droplet impacts on a heated surface. Chemical Engineering Science, 2013, 98, 186–194.
Antonini C, Villa F, Bernagozzi I. Drop rebound after impact: The role of the receding contact angle. Langmuir, 2013, 29, 16045–16050.
Gao X, Li R. Spread and recoiling of liquid droplets impacting solid surfaces. Aiche Journal, 2014, 60, 2683–2691.
Patil N D, Bhardwaj R, Sharma A. Droplet impact dynamics on micropillared hydrophobic surfaces. Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 2016, 74, 195–206.
Moita A S, Moreira A L N. Scaling the effects of surface topography in the secondary atomization resulting from droplet/wall interactions. Experiments in Fluids, 2016, 52, 679–695.
Moreira A L N, Moita A S, Panão M R. Advances and challenges in explaining fuel spray impingement: How much of single droplet impact research is useful? Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 2010, 36, 554–580.
The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial supports from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51676084 and 51776086), Specific Project of Industrial Technology Research & Development of Jilin Province (No. 2020C025-2) and Natural Science Foundation of Jilin Province (No. 20180101059JC).
About this article
Cite this article
Guo, L., Gao, Y., Cai, N. et al. Morphological Development of Fuel Droplets after Impacting Biomimetic Structured Surfaces with Different Temperatures. J Bionic Eng 17, 822–834 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42235-020-0050-3
- fuel droplets
- dynamic contact angle
- rebound factor