Advertisement

Journal of Bionic Engineering

, Volume 15, Issue 2, pp 236–246 | Cite as

A Variable Stiffness Soft Gripper Using Granular Jamming and Biologically Inspired Pneumatic Muscles

  • Loai Al Abeach
  • Samia Nefti-Meziani
  • Theo Theodoridis
  • Steve Davis
Article

Abstract

As the domains, in which robots operate change the objects a robot may be required to grasp and manipulate, are likely to vary significantly and often. Furthermore there is increasing likelihood that in the future robots will work collaboratively alongside people. There has therefore been interest in the development of biologically inspired robot designs which take inspiration from nature. This paper presents the design and testing of a variable stiffness, three fingered soft gripper, which uses pneumatic muscles to actuate the fingers and granular jamming to vary their stiffness. This gripper is able to adjust its stiffness depending upon how fragile/deformable the object being grasped is. It is also lightweight and low inertia, making it better suited to operation near people. Each finger is formed from a cylindrical rubber bladder filled with a granular material. It is shown how decreasing the pressure inside the finger increases the jamming effect and raises finger stiffness. The paper shows experimentally how the finger stiffness can be increased from 21 N·m−1 to 71 N·m−1. The paper also describes the kinematics of the fingers and demonstrates how they can be position-controlled at a range of different stiffness values.

Keywords

biologically inspired robots variable stiffness actuation soft robotics soft grippers pneumatic muscles 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgment

This work was supported by the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Iraq.

References

  1. [1]
    Jacobsen S C, Wood J E, Knutti D F, Biggers K B. The UTAH/MIT dextrous hand: Work in progress. The International Journal of Robotics Research, 1984, 3, 21–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    Ali M S, Kyriakopoulos K J, Stephanou H E. The kinematics of the Anthrobot-2 dextrous hand. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Atlanta, USA, 1993, 705–710.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    Diftler M A, Mehling J S, Abdallah M E, Radford N A, Bridgwater L B, Sanders A M, Hargrave B. Robonaut 2-the first humanoid robot in space. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Shanghai, China, 2011, 2178–2183.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Grebenstein M, Albu-Schäffer A, Bahls T, Chalon M, Eiberger O, Friedl W, Höppner H. The DLR hand arm system. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Shanghai, China, 2011, 3175–3182.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Gao Z, Wei G, Dai J S. Inverse kinematics and workspace analysis of the metamorphic hand. Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, 2014, 5, 965–975.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Schulte H F. The characteristics of the McKibben artificial muscle. In the Application of External Power in Prosthetics and Orthotics, 1961, 94–115.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Chou C P, Hannaford B. Measurement and modelling of McKibben pneumatic artificial muscles. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, 1996, 12, 90–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    Davis S, Tsagarakis N, Canderle J, Caldwell D. Enhanced modelling and performance in braided pneumatic muscle actuators. The International Journal of Robotics Research, 2003, 22, 213–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    Davis S. Caldwell D. A dexterous robot hand for museum exhibition. Design, installation and maintenance. An International Interdisciplinary Journal, 2010, 13, 1859–1867.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    Shadow Dexterous Hand [2015-05-29]. https://www.shadowrobot.com/products/dexterous-hand/.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Bicchi A, Tonietti G. Fast and “soft-arm” tactics [robot arm design]. IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine, 2004, 11, 22–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    Kim S, Laschi C, Trimmer B. Soft robotics: A bioinspired evolution in robotics. Trends in Biotechnology, 2013, 31, 287–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    Lin H T, Leisk G G, Trimmer B. GoQBot: A caterpillarinspired soft-bodied rolling robot. Bioinspiration & Biomimetics, 2011, 6, 026007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    Laschi C, Cianchetti M, Mazzolai B, Margheri L, Follador M, Dario P. Soft robot arm inspired by the octopus. Advanced Robotics, 2012, 26, 709–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    Seok S, Onal C D, Wood R, Rus D, Kim S. Peristaltic locomotion with antagonistic actuators in soft robotics. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Anchorage, AK, USA, 2010, 1228–1233.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    Hassan T, Manti M, Passetti G, d'Elia N, Cianchetti M, Laschi C. Design and development of a bio-inspired, underactuated soft gripper. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), Milan, Italy, 2015, 3619–3622.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    Rateni G, Cianchetti M, Ciuti G, Menciassi A, Laschi C. Design and development of a soft robotic gripper for manipulation in minimally invasive surgery: A proof of concept. Meccanica, 2015, 50, 2855–2863.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    Maghooa F, Stilli A, Noh Y, Althoefer K, Wurdemann H A. Tendon and pressure actuation for a bio-inspired manipulator based on an antagonistic principle. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Seattle, WA, USA, 2015, 2556–2561.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    Katzschmann R K, Marchese A D, Rus D. Autonomous object manipulation using a soft planar grasping manipulator. Soft Robotics, 2015, 2, 155–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    Mosadegh B, Polygerinos P, Keplinger C, Wennstedt S, Shepherd R F, Gupta U, Shim J, Bertoldi K, Walsh C J, Whitesides G M. Pneumatic networks for soft robotics that actuate rapidly. Advanced Functional Materials, 2014, 24, 2163–2170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    Homberg B S, Katzschmann R K, Dogar M R, Rus D. Haptic identification of objects using a modular soft robotic gripper. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Hamburg, Germany, 2015, 1698–1705.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    Wakimoto S, Ogura K, Suzumori K, Nishioka Y. Miniature soft hand with curling rubber pneumatic actuators. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Kobe, Japan, 2009, 556–561.Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    Al Abeach L A, Nefti-Meziani S, Davis S. Design of a variable stiffness soft dexterous gripper. Soft Robotics, 2017, 4, 274–284.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    Shiva A, Stilli A, Noh Y, Faragasso A, De Falco I, Gerboni G, Wurdemann H A. Tendon-based stiffening for a pneumatically actuated soft manipulator. IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, 2016, 1, 632–637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    Jiang A, Ataollahi A, Althoefer K, Dasgupta P, Nanayakkara T. A variable stiffness joint by granular jamming. Proceedings of the ASME 2012 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference, Chicago, Illinois, USA, 2012, 267–275.Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    Cheng N G, Lobovsky M B, Keating S J, Setapen A M, Gero K I, Hosoi A E, Iagnemma K D. Design and analysis of a robust, low-cost, highly articulated manipulator enabled by jamming of granular media. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Saint Paul, MN, USA, 2012, 4328–4333.Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    Brown E, Rodenberg N, Amend J, Mozeika A, Steltz E, Zakin M R, Jaeger H M. Universal robotic gripper based on the jamming of granular material. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2010, 107, 18809–18814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. [28]
    Kim Y J, Cheng S, Kim S, Lagnemma K. A novel layer jamming mechanism with tunable stiffness capability for minimally invasive surgery. IEEE Transactions on Robotics, 2013, 29, 1031–1042.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. [29]
    Davis S, Tsagarakis N, Canderle J, Caldwell D. Enhanced modelling and performance in braided pneumatic muscle actuators. International Journal of Robotics Research, 2003, 22, 213–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. [30]
    Jiang A, Xynogalas G, Dasgupta P, Althoefer K, Nanayakkara T. Design of a variable stiffness flexible manipulator with composite granular jamming and membrane coupling. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Vilamoura, Portugal, 2012, 2922–2927.Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    Godage I S, Branson D T, Guglielmino E, Medrano-Cerda G A, Caldwell D. Shape function-based kinematics and dynamics for variable length continuum robotic arms. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Shanghai, China, 2011, 452–457.Google Scholar
  32. [32]
    Ziegler J G, Nichols N B. Optimum settings for automatic controllers. Transactions of the ASME, 1942, 64, 759–765.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Jilin University 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Loai Al Abeach
    • 1
    • 2
  • Samia Nefti-Meziani
    • 1
  • Theo Theodoridis
    • 1
  • Steve Davis
    • 1
  1. 1.Autonomous Systems and Robotics Research CentreUniversity of SalfordSalfordUK
  2. 2.Computer Engineering Department, College of EngineeringBasra UniversityBasraIraq

Personalised recommendations