A Bio-inspired Soft Robotic Arm: Kinematic Modeling and Hydrodynamic Experiments
Soft robotics has several promising properties for aquatic applications, such as safe interaction with environments, lightweight, low cost, etc. In this paper, we proposed the kinematic modeling and hydrodynamics experiments of a soft robotic arm with 3D locomotion capacity. We developed a mathematical model that incorporates the angle correction, as well as the open-loop model-based motion control. The model could precisely predict the three-dimensional (3D) movement, and the location error is less than 5.7 mm in different attitudes. Furthermore, we performed the hydrodynamic investigations and simultaneously measured the hydrodynamic forces and the wake flows at different amplitudes (50 mm, 100 mm, 150 mm, 200 mm) and frequencies (0.3 Hz, 0.4 Hz, 0.5 Hz) of the soft arm. Surprisingly, we found that the magnitudes of the hydrodynamic force (<1 N) and the torques (<0.08 N·m) of dynamically moving soft arm were tiny, which leads to negligible inertial effect for the underwater vehicle than those of the traditional rigid underwater manipulator. Finally, we demonstrated underwater picking and placing tasks of the soft manipulator by using a computer program that controls the tip attitude and velocity. This study may inspire future underwater manipulators that have properties of low-inertial, low power cost and can safely interact with the aquatic environments.
Keywordsbio-inspired soft robotic arm aquatic environment kinematics digital particle image velocimetry
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
We thank Yufei Hao and Guangyao Huang for their help on this work. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation support key projects, China, under contract numbers 61633004 and 61333016.
Supplementary material, approximately 5.07 MB.
Supplementary material, approximately 3.84 MB.
Supplementary material, approximately 4.93 MB.
- Hao Y, Gong Z, Xie Z, Guan S, Yang X, Ren Z, Wang T, Wen L. Universal soft pneumatic robotic gripper with variable effective length. IEEE China Control Conference, Chengdu, China, 2016, 6109–6114.Google Scholar
- Hao Y, Wang T, Ren Z, Gong Z, Wang H, Yang X, Guan S, Wen L. Modeling and experiments of a soft robotic gripper in amphibious environments. International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems, 2017, 14, https://doi.org/ 10.1177/1729881417707148.Google Scholar
- Park S J, Gazzola M, Park K S, Park S, Santo V D, Blevins E L, Lind J U, Campbell P H, Dauth S, Capulli A K, Pasqualini F S, Ahn S, Cho A, Yuan H, Maoz B M, Vijaykumar R, Choi J W, Deisseroth K, Lauder G V, Mahadevan L, Parker K K. Phototactic guidance of a tissue-engineered soft-robotic ray. Science, 2016, 353, 158–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Galloway K C, Becker K P, Phillips B, Kirby J, Licht S, Tchernov D, Wood R J, Gruber D F. Soft robotic grippers for biological sampling on deep reefs. Soft Robotics, 2016, 3, https://doi.org/10.1089/soro.2015.0019.Google Scholar
- Rolf M, Steil J J. Constant curvature continuum kinematics as fast approximate model for the bionic handling assistant. IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Vilamoura, Portugal, 2012, 3440–3446.Google Scholar
- Wang H, Chen W, Yu X, Deng T, Wang X, Pfeifer R. Visual servo control of cable-driven soft robotic manipulator. IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Tokyo, Japan, 2013, 57–62.Google Scholar
- Krishnan G. Kinematics of a new class of smart actuators for soft robots based on generalized pneumatic artificial muscles. IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Chicago, United States, 2014, 587–592.Google Scholar
- Duriez C. Control of elastic soft robots based on real-time finite element method. IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Karlsruhe, Germany, 2013, 3982–3987.Google Scholar
- Jiang H, Wang Z, Liu X, Chen X, Jin Y, You X, Chen X. A two-level approach for solving the inverse kinematics of an extensible soft arm considering viscoelastic behavior. IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Singapore, 2017.Google Scholar
- Gong Z, Xie Z, Yang X, Wang T, Wen L. Design, fabrication and kinematic modeling of a 3D-motion soft robotic arm. IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics, Qingdao, China, 2016, 509–514.Google Scholar