Modeling and analysis of Hayabusa2 touchdown

Abstract

The Hayabusa2 asteroid explorer mission focuses principally on the touchdown and sampling on near-Earth asteroid 162173 Ryugu. Hayabusa2 successfully landed on its surface and ejected a projectile for sample collection on February 22, 2019. Hayabusa2 later landed near a crater formed by an impactor and executed the sampling sequence again on July 11, 2019. For a successful mission, a thorough understanding and evaluation of spacecraft dynamics during touchdown were crucial. The most challenging aspect of this study was the modeling of such spacecraft phenomena as the dynamics of landing on a surface with unknown properties. In particular, a Monte Carlo analysis was used to determine the parameters of the operational design for the final descent and touchdown sequence. This paper discusses the dynamical modeling of the simulation during the touchdown of Hayabusa2.

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Correspondence to Kent Yoshikawa.

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Kent Yoshikawa received his bachelor’s degree and master’s degree in engineering from the Tokyo Institute of Technology in 2013 and 2015, respectively. In 2015, he started working as an engineer in the Research and Development Directorate, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). His current research interests include astrodynamics, GNC, planetary robotics, and planetary exploration.

Hirotaka Sawada received his B.E. and M.E. degrees from the Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan, in 1998 and 2001, respectively. He received his Ph.D. degree from the Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan in 2004. He is an associate senior engineer at JAXA. He is currently involved in the Martian Moons Exploration (MMX) project. His specialized field of research include space robotics, dynamics, and control of space systems.

Shota Kikuchi received his Ph.D. degree in aeronautics and astronautics from the University of Tokyo in 2018. From 2015 to 2017, he served as a visiting scholar at Purdue University and NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. He is currently a postdoctoral research associate at JAXA, and is engaged in the Hayabusa2 asteroid sample return mission as a system engineer. His primary research interests lie in the field of astrodynamics, particularly in the dynamics around small bodies.

Naoko Ogawa received her B.E., M.E., and Ph.D. degrees in mathematical engineering and information physics in 2000, 2002, and 2005, respectively, from the University of Tokyo, Japan. From 2004 to 2008, she was a Research Fellow at the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. Since 2008, she has been a research engineer at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), JAXA. Her current research interests include astrodynamics, mission design, robotics, spacecraft systems, and operation.

Yuya Mimasu is a researcher at JAXA. He graduated with a Ph.D. in aerospace engineering from the Kyushu University. After graduation, he joined JAXA, and has been working on guidance, navigation, and control subsystems of the Hayabusa2 mission, which is JAXA’s sample return mission to the asteroid Ryugu. His research interests are astrodynamics and mission analysis around small bodies.

Go Ono is a researcher at JAXA. He graduated with his Master of Engineering degree from the University of Bath in 2011 and his Ph.D. degree in aerospace engineering from the University of Tokyo in 2014. He joined JAXA in 2015, and has been working on guidance, navigation, and control systems of JAXA’s deep space missions such as Hayabusa2 and MMX. His current research interests are astrodynamics and deep space exploration.

Yuto Takei received his Ph.D. degree in engineering from the Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan, in 2015. He is a researcher at the Research and Development Directorate, JAXA. He is involved in the Hayabusa2 project as a system engineer. His research interests include astrodynamics, spacecraft systems, space robotics, and deep space exploration.

Fuyuto Terui received his Ph.D. degree in aerospace engineering from the University of Osaka Prefecture in 1989. He has been a staff member of the Space Technology Research Center of National Aerospace Laboratory (NAL) of Japan since 1989. He was a visiting scholar at the University of Cambridge, Engineering Department, Control Group between 1994 and 1995. After the reorganization of space agencies in Japan, he has been a staff member of JAXA since 2003 and is now a function manager of the “Hayabusa2” project as well as a representative of the Attitude and Orbit Control System of “Hayabusa2” spacecraft. His main research field is robust control and image-based guidance, navigation, and control of spacecraft such as debris removal space robots and the asteroid exploration probe.

Takanao Saiki received his Ph.D. degree in aeronautics and astronautics from the University of Tokyo, Japan, in 2005. He is an assistant professor at ISAS, JAXA. He is now involved in the Hayabusa2 project. He was a chief developer of the impact system and is currently a project engineer. His research interests include astrodynamics, spacecraft system, and deep space exploration.

Tetsuya Masuda received his bachelor’s and master’s degrees in engineering from Kyoto University in 2009 and 2011, respectively. From 2011, he started working as an engineer in space system development of NEC Corporation, and he has been a Hayabusa2 system manager since 2018.

Seiji Yasuda received his bachelor’s and master’s, Ph.D. degrees in science from Tsukuba University in 2004, 2006, and 2009, respectively. From 2009, he started working as an engineer in NEC Aerospace Systems, Ltd. and moved to NEC Corporation in 2016.

Kota Matsushima received his bachelor’s and master’s degrees in Engineering from Hokkaido University in 2007 and 2009, respectively. From 2009, he started working as an engineer in space system development at NEC Corporation.

Yuichi Tsuda received his Ph.D. degree in aeronautics and astronautics from the University of Tokyo in 2003 and joined JAXA in 2003 as a research associate. He was a visiting scholar at the Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Michigan and Department of Aerospace Engineering Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder in 2008–2009. He was a deputy lead of the IKAROS project, the world’s first interplanetary solar sail mission. He is currently a professor at ISAS/JAXA and is also the project manager of the Hayabusa2, an asteroid sample-return mission. His research interests are astrodynamics, spacecraft system, and deep space exploration.

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Yoshikawa, K., Sawada, H., Kikuchi, S. et al. Modeling and analysis of Hayabusa2 touchdown. Astrodyn 4, 119–135 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42064-020-0073-x

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Keywords

  • contact dynamics
  • resistive force theory (RFT)
  • astrodynamics
  • Hayabusa2
  • planetary exploration