Relaxation training significantly reduced blood glucose levels in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus



The present study was designed to test whether adding a relaxation training technique to the medical treatment of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus could, adjusting for the non-specific factors of therapy, lead to an improvement in the patients’ condition.


Forty-six participants were randomly allocated either to an experimental (intervention) group, receiving weekly sessions of relaxation training, or to a control group (placebo) receiving weekly blood circulation training exercises. Measures included the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory, blood glucose levels, high-density lipoprotein levels, cholesterol levels, body weight, HbA1c levels, the Mood Adjective Checklist (MACL), a diary checklist, and urine glucose levels. Assessment of psychological and physiological parameters was conducted before and upon completion of the intervention (8 weeks).


Trait anxiety and the main metabolic measurement of blood glucose levels and HbA1C revealed significant differences over time, predominantly among patients in the intervention group.


Relaxation techniques as an adjunct to medical treatment are a useful tool for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

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STAI-AD copyrighted 1968, 1977 Charles D. Spielberger. All Rights Reserved. Permission for use of Greek translation received from the Publisher Mind Garden, Inc.,

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Correspondence to Antonia A. Paschali.

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All procedures performed in the study involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards (Reference no. 239) of the research and scientific committee of Polikliniki, General Hospital in Athens, Greece and in accordance with the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

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Informed consent was obtained from all patients included in the study.

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Paschali, A.A., Peppou, L.Ε. & Benroubi, M. Relaxation training significantly reduced blood glucose levels in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Hormones 19, 215–222 (2020).

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  • Type 1 diabetes mellitus
  • Stress management
  • Relaxation training
  • Intervention group
  • Placebo group