Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) constitutes a real challenge in everyday practice for both physicians and patients. Due to the complexity of the disease and its unpredictable nature, structured education and training programs are nowadays implemented that ensure active patient involvement and self-care behaviors to achieve adequate glycemic control, prevent diabetic complications, and improve the quality of life of patients. These programs provide patients with the necessary knowledge and skills to self-monitor and self-manage the disease and its associated metabolic conditions. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of a structured 12-month education program that motivated patients to follow a healthy Mediterranean diet and exercise regularly as well as to adjust carbohydrate intake and insulin dose according to their needs.
The education group (EG) was comprised of 62 patients (45 males) with type 1 DM, mean age 36 ± 4.2 years and BMI 24.2 ± 3.1 kg/m2. An age- and BMI-matched control group (CG, n = 25, mean age 41 ± 6.4 years, BMI 25.7 ± 4.2 kg/m2) was composed of patients referred but not enrolled in the project.
At the end of this program, HbA1C levels were significantly decreased (8.5 ± 2.1% vs. 7.08 ± 0.79%, p < 0.0001) as was also the incidence of hypoglycemic episodes (p < 0.05). Regarding daily glucose fluctuations, significant improvement (p < 0.05) was observed, as reflected in low, high, and daily median glucose values. On the other hand, the above parameters remained stable in the CG.
These results strongly support the need for long-lasting structured education group courses for adult diabetic patients keen to change their habits in order to achieve self-management of the disease.
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All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. The ethics committee of the AHEPA Hospital approved the study and written informed consent was obtained from all participants.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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Mouslech, Z., Somali, M., Sarantis, L. et al. Significant effect of group education in patients with diabetes type 1. Hormones 17, 397–403 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42000-018-0054-0
- Diabetes education program
- Type 1 diabetes
- Glycemic control