Table 4 Combustion and burning properties of the different fuel types (0 °C, 7 kg, 30-cm diameter fire experiments)

From: Assessing the Function of Palaeolithic Hearths: Experiments on Intensity of Luminosity and Radiative Heat Outputs from Different Fuel Sources

Fuel type, 7 kg Species Weight fuel, kg Moisture content Duration fire (min) Duration flame (min) Peak temp fire, °C Peak temp surface Embers Sparks Smoke
Fresh bone Capreolus capreolus 7.19 + 1.52 kg silver birch x 180 170 764 (65) 474 (45) No No High
Soft wood Picea abies 7.14 18 60 55 642 (25) 522 (25) Yes Yes High
Soft wood Alnus glutinosa 6.98 18 75 55 562 (20) 389 (50) Yes Yes High
Soft wood Pinus sylvestris 7.06 20 135 110 751 (60) 510 (80) Yes No Medium
Soft wood Larix decidua 7.25 22 130 100 618 (45) 396 (25) Yes No Low
Hard wood Quercus robur 7.11 21 155 120 596 (70) 421 (50) Yes No Low
Hard wood Fagus sylvatica 7.04 19 105 85 729 (40) 432 (45) Yes No Low
Hard wood Fraxinus excelsior 6.92 16 140 80 651 (95) 384 (50) Yes No Low
Hard wood Betula pendula 7.02 19 85 70 816 (30) 421 (45) Yes Yes High