Table 3 Combustion and burning properties of the different fuel types (0 to 3 °C, 35 kg, 1-m diameter fire experiments)

From: Assessing the Function of Palaeolithic Hearths: Experiments on Intensity of Luminosity and Radiative Heat Outputs from Different Fuel Sources

Fuel type Species Weight fuel, kg Moisture content Duration fire (min) Duration flame (min) Peak temp fire, °C Peak temp surface Embers Sparks Smoke
Fresh bone Capreolus capreolus 35.61 + 5.5 kg silver birch x 330 280 919 (210) 920 (155) No No High at the start
Soft wood Picea abies 35.2 17 140 80 980 (45) 429 (65) Yes Yes High
Soft wood Alnus glutinosa 34.98 21 90 80 790 (35) 545 (75) Yes Yes High
Soft wood Pinus sylvestris 34.91 20 195 150 880 (45) 849 (140) Yes Yes minimal Low
Soft wood Larix decidua 35.03 19 185 150 814 (115) 918 (50) Yes No Low
Hard wood Quercus robur 35.21 21 220 160 961 (100) 931 (70) Yes No Low
Hard wood Fagus sylvatica 35.09 19 170 130 908 (60) 928 (30) Yes No Low
Hard wood Fraxinus excelsior 34.89 18 170 100 891 (70) 663 (40) Yes Yes Low
Hard wood Betula pendula 35.06 18 150 100 906 (45) 797 (70) Yes Yes High