Table 2 Combustion and burning properties of the different fuel types (11 to 13 °C, 35, 1-m diameter fire experiments)

From: Assessing the Function of Palaeolithic Hearths: Experiments on Intensity of Luminosity and Radiative Heat Outputs from Different Fuel Sources

Fuel type Species Weight fuel, kg Moisture content Duration fire (min) Duration flame (min) Peak temp fire °C (duration min) Peak temp surface °C (time to reach min) Embers Sparks Smoke
Fresh bone Capreolus capreolus 35.03 + 5.5 kg silver birch x 305 295 851 (170) 963 (225) No No High at the start
Soft wood Picea abies 35.63 20 135 85 1000 (40) 849 (65) Yes Yes High
Soft wood Alnus glutinosa 34.97 18 125 60 844 (50) 466 (100) Yes Yes high
Soft wood Pinus sylvestris 34.57 21 175 125 860 (60) 761 (135) Yes No Low
Soft wood Larix decidua 35.31 20 205 140 850 (110) 956 (30) Yes No Low
Hard wood Quercus robur 35.08 20 190 120 890 (90) 946 (35) Yes No Low
Hard wood Fagus sylvatica 35.34 19 190 120 879 (80) 853 (65) Yes No Low
Hard wood Fraxinus excelsior 34.76 20 220 150 876 (115) 813 (70) Yes No Low
Hard wood Betula pendula 35.02 18 170 50 869 (55) 586 (100) Yes No High