Advertisement

International Journal of Information Technology

, Volume 10, Issue 4, pp 465–479 | Cite as

Energy efficient link stable routing in internet of things

  • Kirshna Kumar
  • Sushil Kumar
Original Research
  • 148 Downloads

Abstract

In future communication networks with Internet of Things (IoT), each of the smart devices will be able to communicate with other smart devices ubiquitously throughout the time clock. These smart devices contain limited amount of energy, memory, and processing power. Additionally, short range radios are very susceptible to noise, multi route distortion, and interference. In this context this paper proposes an energy efficient link stable routing (EELSR) to conserve energy of the smart devices and to account link stability for enhancing the network lifetime. In order to verify the correctness of the proposed routing, first, analytical models for link stability, and residual energy of a route have proposed, second, an optimal route selection algorithm that uses residual energy of a route, link stability of a route, and route distance, has been designed. The performance of the proposed EELSR is evaluated and compared with AODV and REL in the terms of network life time, packet delivery ratio, routing success probability, and route setup delay. EELSR outperforms the state of art routing algorithms.

Keywords

Internet of things Link stability Energy Routing Network life time 

References

  1. 1.
    Zanella A, Bui N, Castellani A, Vangelista L, Zorzi M (2014) Internet of things forsmart cities. IEEE Internet Things J. 1(1):22–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kamalinejad P, Mahapatra C, Sheng Z, Mirabbasi S, Leung V, Guan YL (2015) Wireless energy harvesting for the internet of things. IEEE Commun Mag 53(6):102–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kaiwartya O, Abdullah AH, Cao Y, Altameem A, Prasad M, Lin C and Liu X (2016) Internet of vehicles: motivation, layered architecture, network model, challenges and future aspects. IEEE Access 99.  https://doi.org/10.1109/access.2016.2603219
  4. 4.
    Grieco LA, Rizzo A, Colucci S, Sicari S, Piro G, Paola DD, Boggia G (2014) IoT-aided robotics applications: technological implications, target domains and open issues. Comput Commun 54:32–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Aijaz A, Aghvami AH (2015) Cognitive machine-to-machine communications for internet-of-things: a protocol stack perspective. IEEE Internet Things J 2(2):103–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lin YB et al (2015) EasyConnect: a management system for IoT devices and its applications for interactive design and art. IEEE Internet Things J 2(6):551–561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kumar S, Raza Z (2017) “Using clustering approaches for response time aware job scheduling model for internet of things (IoT). Int J Inf Technol.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s41870-017-0020-0 (Springer) Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bello O, Zeadally S (2014) Intelligent device communication in the internet of things. Syst J IEEE 1(99):1–11Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Evans D (2011) The internet of things: how the next evolution of the Internet is changing everything. Cisco IBSG, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Atzori L, Iera A, Morabito G (2010) The internet of things: a survey. Comput Netw 54:2787–2805.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comnet.2010.05.010 CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kopetz H (1997) Real-time systems: design principles for distributed embedded applications. Real-Time Systems Series. Springer, New YorkzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jia X, Feng Q, Fan T, and Lei Q (2012) RFID Technology and Its Applications in Internet of Things (IoT). In: 2nd International Conference on Consumer Electronics, Communications and Networks (CECNet), no. 21–23 April 2012, pp. 1282–1285.  https://doi.org/10.1109/CECNet.2012.6201508
  13. 13.
    Gubbi J, Buyya R, Marusic S, Palaniswami M (2013) Internet of Things(IoT): a vision, architectural elements and future directions. Future Gen Comput Syst 29(7):1645–1660 (ELSEVIER) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Atzori L, Iera A, Morabito G (2010) The internet of things: a survey. Comput Netw 54(16):2787–2805CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Singh D, Triroutei G and Jara AJ A survey of Internet-of-things: future vision, architecture, challenges and services Internet of things (WF-IoT). In: Proceeding IEEE world forum on, pp. 287–292Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dhumane A, Prasad R and Prasad J (2016) Routing issues in internet of things: a survey. In: Proceedings of the International MultiConference of Engineers and Computer Scientists Vol. I, IMECS :2016, March 16–18, 2016, Hong KongGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Liu CH, Fan J, Branch JW, Leung KK (2014) Toward QoI and Energy-Efficiency in Internet-of-Things Sensory Environments. IEEE Trans Emerg Topics Comput 2(4):473–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nguyen TD, Khan JY, Ngo DT (2016) Energy harvested roadside IEEE 802.15.4 wireless sensor networks for IoT applications. Ad Hoc Netw pp. 1–13.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adhoc.2016.12.003
  19. 19.
    Tseng YC, Li YF, Chang YC (2003) On route lifetime in multihop mobile ad hoc networks. IEEE Trans Mobile Comput 2(4):366–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rango FD, Guerriero F, Fazio P (2012) Link-stability and energy aware routing protocol in distributed wireless networks. IEEE Trans Parallel Distrib Syst IEEE 23(4):713–726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Meghanathan N (2007) Stability-energy consumption tradeoff among mobile ad hoc network routing protocols. In: Proc. Third Int’l Conf. Wireless and Mobile Comm. (ICWMC’07), Mar. 2007Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Frey H, Rührup S, Stojmenović I (2009) Routing in wireless sensor networks. Wireless sensor networks. Springer, Berlin, pp 81–111Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Stojmenovic I, Lin X (2001) Loop-free hybrid single-route/flooding routing algorithms with guaranteed delivery for wireless networks. IEEE Trans Parallel Distrib Syst 12(10):1023–1032CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kranakis E, Singh H and Urrutia J (1999) Compass routing on geometric networks. In: Proc. 11th Canadian Conference on Computational GeometryGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Stojmenovic I, Ruhil AP, Lobiyal DK (2006) Voronoi diagram and convex hull based geocasting and routing in wireless networks. Wireless communications and mobile computing, Wiley 6(2):247–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Watanabe M and Higaki H (2007) No-beacon GEDIR: location-based ad-hoc routing with less communication overhead. In: IEEE Fourth International Conference on Information Technology, ITNG’0, pp 48–55, April 2007Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kumar V, Kumar S (2016) Energy balanced position-based routing for lifetime maximization of wireless sensor networks. Ad Hoc Netw.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adhoc.2016.08.006 Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Shelby Z, Bormann C (2009) 6LoWPAN : the wireless embedded internet. Wiley, Chichester.  https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470686218 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Winter T, Thubert P and Brandt A et al (2012) “RPL: IPv6 routing protocol for low power and lossy networks,” (RFC 6550). Accessed Mar 2014Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Shelby J, Hartkey K and Bormann C (2014) The Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP)”, (RFC 7252). Accessed June 2014Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Perkins C, Belding-Royer E and Das S (2013) “Ad hoc on Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing,” (RFC3561). http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3561.txt. Accessed 30 Jan 2013
  32. 32.
    Marina MK, Das SR (2002) Ad-hoc on demand multiroute distance vector. Mobile Comput Commun ACM 6(3):92–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Butt M, Javed M, Akbar A, Taj Q, Lim C and Kim K (2010) Labile: link quality-based lexical routing metric for reactive routing Protocolin IEEE 802.15.4 Networks. In: Processing of Future Information Technology (FutureTech), pp 1–6, 2010Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Chung Y (2011) An energy-efficient unicast routing protocol for wireless sensor Networks. Tech. Int J Comput Sci Emerg Tech 2:60–64Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Liu Y et al (2016) An energy efficiency communications approach for delay minimizing in internet of things. IEEE Access 4:3775–3793Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Chellouge S (2015) Energy-efficient content-based routing in internet of things. J Comput Commun Sci Res 3(12):9–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Liu CH, Fan J, Branch JW, Leung KK (2014) Toward QoI and energy-efficiency in internet-of-things sensory environments. IEEE Trans Emerg Topics Comput 2(4):473–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Shu Y, Shu Z, Luo B (2014) Incentive mechanism design for heterogeneous networking routing. J Commun Netw 16(4):458–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Machado K, Rosário D, Cerqueira E, Loureiro AAF, Neto A, de Souza JN (2013) A routing protocol based on energy and link quality for internet of thing applications. Sensors MDPI 13:1942–1964CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Rango FD et al (2006) A multi-objective approach for energy consumption and link stability issues in Ad Hoc networks. IEEE Comm Lett 10(1):28–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Colletter Y, Siany P (2003) Multiobjective optimization: principles and case studies, decision engineering. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Skriver AJV, Andersen KA (2000) A label correcting approach for solving bicriterion shortest route problems. Comput Oper Res 27:507–524MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Meghanathan N and Farago A (2004) Looking at protocol efficiency from a new angle: stability-delay analysis. InL Proc. Second Int’l Conf. Mobile Computing and Networking, pp. 51-55Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Tanino T, Tanaka T, Inuiguchi M (2003) Multi-objective programming and goal programming: theory and applications. Springer, BerlinCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Heinzelman WR, Chandrakasan A, Balakrishnan H (2000) An application-specific protocol architecture for wireless microsensor networks. IEEE Trans Wireless Commun 1(4):1–10Google Scholar
  46. 46.

Copyright information

© Bharati Vidyapeeth's Institute of Computer Applications and Management 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Computer and and Systems SciencesJawaharlal Nehru University (JNU)New DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations