Rock art in south Levantine dolmens

Abstract

Thousands of dolmens are scattered throughout the southern Levant, mainly in Syria, Israel, and Jordan. These megalithic burials, dated to the early stages of the Bronze Age, are an understudied and little understood phenomenon of Levantine archaeology. Unlike in Europe and other parts of the world, rock art has rarely been reported from Levantine dolmens, despite more than 150 years of research and hundreds of excavated dolmens of the thousands of megalithic structures recorded. A fortunate discovery, in 2012, of engraved features on the ceiling of the central burial chamber of a giant dolmen in the Shamir Dolmen Field has markedly altered our current body of knowledge. Since this finding, rock art has been discovered at three additional dolmen sites. These latest discoveries are presented in the context of their significance to the broader phenomenon of the mysterious megalithic burials of the Levant.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11

Data availability

All data is presented in the paper. All dolmens mentioned can be visited and anyone who wishes to observe the rock art panels and other artistic features on the dolmens can do so at any time.

References

  1. ‘Ad, Uzi. 2016. The agricultural landscape of the ‘Ẓippor Compound’ in Modi'in. ‘Atiqot 84: 123–124.

  2. Ahlström, Gosta W. 1978. Wine presses and cup-marks of the Jenin-Megiddo survey. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 231: 19–49.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Alexander, Yardena. 2017. Korazim. Kh. Umm El-Kalha. Hadashot Arkheologiyot 129. http://www.hadashot-esi.org.il/Report_Detail_Eng.aspx?id=25188.

  4. Amiran, Ruth. 1972. A cult stele from Arad. Israel Exploration Journal 22: 86–88.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Amos, Edna and Nimrod Getzov. 2011. The rural hinterland west of Tel Ḥaẓor. ‘Atiqot 67: 27–39, 84-85.

  6. Anati, Emanuel. 1963. New petroglyphs at Derrynablaha, county Kerry, Ireland. Journal of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society 68: 1–15.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Anati, Emanuel. 1999. The rock art of the Negev Desert. Near Eastern Archaeology 62 (1): 22–34.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Anati, Emanuel. 2015. The rock art of the Negev and Sinai. 2nd ed. Gorgonzola: Global Press.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Avner, Uzi, Liora K. Horwitz, and Wayne Horowitz. 2017. Symbolism of the ibex motif in Negev rock art. Journal of Arid Environments 143: 35–43.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Bahat, Dan. 1972. The date of the dolmens near kibbutz Shamir. Israel Exploration Journal 22: 44–46.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Bahat, Dan. 1973. The dolmen field at kibbutz Shamir. Eretz Israel 11: 68–63 (in Hebrew).

    Google Scholar 

  12. Bahn, Paul G. 2010. Prehistoric rock art: Polemics and progress. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  13. Berger, Uri, Kristina Reed, Anya Kleiner, and Gonen Sharon. In press. Kibbutz Shamir dolmen survey. The Archaeological Survey of Israel.

  14. Berger, Uri and Gonen Sharon. 2017. Shamir, the dolmen field. Hadashot Arkheologiyot 129. https://www.hadashotesi.org.jl/Report_Detail_Eng.aspx?id=25208&mag_id=125.

  15. Berger, Uri, and Gonen Sharon. 2018. Dolmens of the Hula Basin. Journal of the Israel Prehistoric Society 48: 147–166.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Beyneix, Alain. 2007. Indices d'un art mégalithique en Aquitaine. Bulletin De La Société Préhistorique Française 104 (3): 517–524.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Braemer, Frank, Serge Cleuziouand, and Tara Steimer. 2003. Dolmen-like structures: Some unusual funerary monuments in Yemen. Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies 33: 169–182.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Bron, Hendrik. 2010. Had-Nes. Hadashot Arkheologiyot 122. http://www.hadashot-esi.org.il/Report_Detail_Eng.aspx?id=1356&mag_id=117.

  19. Broome, Edwin C. 1940. The dolmens of Palestine and Transjordan. Dissertation, Brown University: Unpublished Ph.D.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Brusgaard, Nathali. 2019. Carving interactions: Rock art in the nomadic landscape of the Black Desert, North-Eastern Jordan. Oxford: Archaeopress.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Conder, Claude R. 1882a. Rude stone monuments of the Bible. PEFQS 14\3: 139–142.

  22. Conder, Claude R. 1882b. Captain Conder’s Reports X. Bamoth Baal and Baal Peor. PEFQS 14\2: 69–112.

  23. Conder, Claude R. 1886. Syrian stone-lore. London: Bentley and Son.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Conder, Claude R. 1889. The survey of eastern Palestine, memoirs of the topography, orography, hydrography, archaeology, etc. Guildford: Billing and Sons Ltd..

    Google Scholar 

  25. Covello-Paran, Karen. 2015. The Jezreel Valley during the intermediate bronze age: Social and cultural landscapes. Tel Aviv University: Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Damati, Emanuel and Hanaa Abu ‘Uqsa. 1991. Karkom. Hadashot Arkheologiyot 97: 18–20.

  27. Darvill, Timothy, and Geoffrey Wainwright. 2003. A cup-marked stone from Dan-y-garn, ynachlog-Ddu, Pembrokeshire, and the prehistoric rock-art from Wales. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 69: 253–264.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Dever, William G. 1995. Social structure in the early bronze IV period in Palestine. In The archaeology of Society in the Holy Land, ed. Thomas E. Levy, 282–296. London: Leicester University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Dubis, Elzbieta, Mohammad A. Marahlah, and Sami Nawaflah. 2004. Two new dolmen fields in the ash-Shawbak area. Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan 48: 15–24.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Eisenberg-Degen, Davida, and George Nash. 2014. Hunting and gender as reflected in the Central Negev rock art, Israel. Time and Mind 7 (3): 259–277.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Eisenberg-Degen, Davida, George Nash, and Joshua Schmidt. 2016. Inscribing history: The complex geographies of Bedouin tribal markings in the Negev Desert, southern Israel. In Liam M. Brady and Paul S.C. Taçon (eds.), Relating to Rock Art in the Contemporary World, 157–188. Boulder: University Press of Colorado.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Eisenberg-Degen, Davida, and Steven A. Rosen. 2013. Chronological trends in Negev rock art: The Har Michia petroglyphs as a test case. Arts 2: 225–252.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Epstein, Claire. 1985. Dolmens excavated in the Golan. Atiqot 17: 20–58.

    Google Scholar 

  34. Fraser, James A. 2015. Dolmens in the Levant. University of Sydney: Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation.

    Google Scholar 

  35. Fraser, James A. 2018. Dolmens in the Levant. London and New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  36. Fergusson, James. 1872. Rude stone monuments in all countries: Their age and uses. London: John Murray.

    Google Scholar 

  37. Freikman, Michael. 2014. Megalithic structures in the southern Levant: The Golan Heights as a case study. The Hebrew University of Jerusalem: Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation.

    Google Scholar 

  38. Gal, Zvi. 2011. Dor 30. The Archaeological Survey of Israel. http://survey.antiquities.org.il/index_Eng.html#/MapSurvey/5.

    Google Scholar 

  39. Genz, Hermann. 2001. Early bronze age potmarks from Khirbat az-Zayraqūn: Some aspects concerning their meaning. Studies in the History and Archaeology of Jordan 7: 217–228.

    Google Scholar 

  40. Getzov, Nimrod. 2005. En ‘Adaya (south). Hadashot Arkheologiyot 117. http://www.hadashot-esi.org.il/Report_Detail_Eng.aspx?id=224&mag_id=110.

  41. Getzov, Nimrod, Karen Covello-Paran, and Yotam Tepper. 2011. The “Taanakh winepress”: Evidence of the middle bronze age wine industry in the Jezreel Valley. Eretz-Israel: Archaeological, Historical and Geographical Studies 30: 145–155.

    Google Scholar 

  42. Greenberg, Raphael. 2002. Early urbanizations in the Levant: A regional narrative. Leicester, UK: Leicester University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  43. Hadas, Gideon, and Orit Peleg-Barkat. 2019. En Gedi – 2018. Hadashot Arkheologiyot 131. http://www.hadashot-esi.org.il/Report_Detail_Eng.aspx?id=25514&mag_id=127.

  44. Hartal, Moshe. 1987. Hadolmenim Be’eretz Israel. Tel Aviv: Hamador Le-yediat Ha’aretz Batnua Hakibutzit (in Hebrew).

    Google Scholar 

  45. Hartal, Moshe. 2013. Tiberias. Hadashot Arkheologiyot 125. http://www.hadashot-esi.org.il/Report_Detail_Eng.aspx?id=4350&mag_id=120.

  46. Hartal, Moshe. 2017. Introduction to the Golan survey. The Archaeological Survey of Israel. http://survey.antiquities.org.il/index.html#/Golan.

    Google Scholar 

  47. Hartal, Moshe and Yigal Ben Efraim. 2012a. ‘En Gev 40. The Archaeological Survey of Israel. http://survey.antiquities.org.il/index_Eng.html#/MapSurvey/38.

    Google Scholar 

  48. Hartal, Moshe and Yigal Ben Efraim. 2012b. Qaṣrin 18/1. The Archaeological Survey of Israel. http://survey.antiquities.org.il/index_Eng.html#/MapSurvey/43.

    Google Scholar 

  49. Hartal, Moshe, Gabriela Bijovsky, Lev Eppelbaum, Yael Gorin-Rosen, and Sonia Itkis. 2009. The Baniyas survey. Paneas IV: The Aqueduct and the Northern Suburbs: 3–26.

  50. Ilani, Shimon, and Tsevi Minster. 2011. On a thousand-year-old tradition to use dimension stones derived from rocks of the Gadot formation, Hula Valley. Cathedra: For the History of Eretz Israel and Its Yishuv 139: 133–150 (in Hebrew).

    Google Scholar 

  51. Irby, Charles L., and James Mangles. 1845. Travels in Egypt and Nubia, Syria and the Holy Land. London: John Murray.

    Google Scholar 

  52. Jorge, Vítor O. 1998. Interpreting the “megalithic art” of Western Iberia. Journal of Iberian Archaeology 0: 69–84.

  53. Karge, Paul. 1917. Rephaim, die vorgeschichtliche kultur Palastinas und Phoeniziens. Paderborn.

    Google Scholar 

  54. Kitchener, Herbert H. 1877. Lieutenant Kitchener’s reports: I – Camp at Tiberias, 30th march 1877. PEFQS 9 (3): 116–125.

    Google Scholar 

  55. Krabbenhöft, Rikke W. 2010. Symbols in clay: A study of early bronze IV Potter’s Marks from the Amman-Zarqa region in Transjordan. MA Dissertation: Uppsala University.

    Google Scholar 

  56. Lee, Sangmog. 2015. Korean Rock Art. Busan:·Gyeongnam·Cheonla·Jeju·Deagu·Gyeongbuk.

  57. Le Quellec, Jean-Loïc. 2002. Megalithic art in France: Recent developments. L’Anthropologie 106: 603–646.

  58. MacKie, Euan W., and Alan Davis. 1988-1989. New light on Neolithic rock carving: The petroglyphs at Greenland (Auchentorlie), Dunbartonshire. Glasgow Archaeological Journal 15: 125–155.

    Google Scholar 

  59. Mitchell, Eric, Jason M. Zan, Cameron S. Coyle, and Adam R. Dodd. 2012. Tel Gezer. Regional Survey: Preliminary Report. Hadashot Arkheologiyot: Excavations and Surveys in Israel 124 https://www.hadashot-esi.org.il/Report_Detail_Eng.aspx?id=2192&mag_id=119.

  60. Mottram, Mandy, and David Menere. 2008. Wadi Abu Qalqal regional survey, Syria report for 2006. Mediterranean Archaeology 21: 79–104.

    Google Scholar 

  61. Nash, George. 2006. Cup-and-ring petroglyph on the Neolithic chambered burial monument of Garnturne, Pembrokeshire, SW Wales. Rock Art Research 23 (2): 1–8.

    Google Scholar 

  62. Niel, Fernand. 1970. La civilization des mégalithes. Paris: Plon.

    Google Scholar 

  63. Nihildas, Nellikunnel. 2014. A micro-regional approach to the rock art sites in the Anjunad Valley, south Central Kerala. Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies in Archaeology 2: 593–624.

    Google Scholar 

  64. Olivieri, Luca M., and Massimo Vidale. 2004. Beyond Gogdara I: New evidence of rock carvings and rock artefacts from the Kandak Valley and adjacent areas (swat, Pakistan). East and West 54 (1/4): 121–180.

    Google Scholar 

  65. Polcaro, Andrea. 2013. The stone and the landscape, the phenomenon of megalithic constructions in Jordan in the main historical context of the southern Levant at the beginning of the 3rd millennium BCE. In Bombardieri, Luca, Anacleto D’Agostino, Guido Guarducci, Valentina Orsi, and Stefano Valentini (eds.), SOMA 2012, Identity and Connectivity. Proceedings of the 16th Symposium on Mediterranean Archaeology,pp. 127–132. BAR. Oxford: Archaeopress.

  66. Prag, Kay. 2014. The southern Levant during the intermediate bronze age. In The Oxford handbook of the archaeology of the Levant: C 8000–332 BCE, ed. Ann E. Killebrew and Margreet Steiner, 388–400. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  67. Ramírez, Primitiva Bueno, Rodrigo de Balbín Behrmann, and Rosa B. Bermejo. 2014. Megalithic art in the Iberian Peninsula: Thinking about graphic discourses in the European megaliths. Préhistoires Méditerranéennes [En ligne], Colloque | 2014, mis en ligne le 11 décembre 2014, consulté le 01 mai 2019. http://journals.openedition.org/pm/1077.

  68. Regev, Johanna, Pierre de Miroschedji, Raphael Greenberg, Eliot Braun, Zvi Greenhut, and Elisabetta Boaretto. 2012. Chronology of the early bronze age in the southern Levant: New analysis for a high chronology. Radiocarbon 54 (3–4): 525–566.

    Google Scholar 

  69. Rey, Beatriz C. and Félix G. Insua. 2017. Rock art of the upper Támega Valley (Galicia, Spain). In Bettencourt, Ana M. S., Manuel S. Estevez, Hugo a. Sampaio, and Daniela Cardoso (eds.), Recorded Places, Experienced Places, pp. 49–62. BAR. Oxford: Archaeopress.

  70. Roth, Yehuda. 1984. The survey of the southern Golan. In The library of man and his work 4. Tel: Aviv (in Hebrew).

    Google Scholar 

  71. Saban, Michael. 2012. Ancient board games in the land of Israel. Qadmoniot 144: 50–64 (in Hebrew).

    Google Scholar 

  72. Schattner, Uri, and Ram Weinberger. 2008. A mid-Pleistocene deformation transition in the hula basin, northern Israel: Implications for the tectonic evolution of the Dead Sea fault. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems 9: Q07009.

    Google Scholar 

  73. Schumacher, Gottlieb. 1888. The Jaulan. London: R. Bentley and Son.

    Google Scholar 

  74. Schwimer, Lior, and Yuval Yekutieli. 2017. Visitors from the intermediate bronze age? Crescent headed figures in Negev rock art. The Ancient Near East Today 5 (12). http://www.asor.org/anetoday/2017/12/crescent-headed-figures.

  75. Shaked, Idan. 1993. Qiryat Shemona – Giv'at Sheḥumit. Hadashot Arkheologiyot 99: 3–4 (in Hebrew).

    Google Scholar 

  76. Shaked, Idan. 1994. Qiryat Shemona – Giv'at Sheḥumit. Hadashot Arkheologiyot 101 (102): 6–8 (in Hebrew).

    Google Scholar 

  77. Shaked, Idan. 1999. Qiryat Shemona – Giv'at Sheḥumit. Hadashot Arkheologiyot 109: 5–6 (in Hebrew).

    Google Scholar 

  78. Shalev, Sariel. 1995. Metals in ancient Israel: Archaeological interpretation of chemical analysis. Israel Journal of Chemist 35: 109–116.

    Google Scholar 

  79. Sharon, Gonen, Alon Barash, Davida Eisenberg-Degen, Leore Grosman, Maya Oron, and Uri Berger. 2017. Monumental megalithic burial and rock art tell a new story about the Levant intermediate bronze “dark ages”. PLoS One 12 (3): e0172969. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0172969.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  80. Smithline, Howard. 2008. Tel Barom. Hadashot Arkheologiyot 120. http://www.hadashot-esi.org.il/Report_Detail_Eng.aspx?id=956&mag_id=114.

  81. Stekelis, Moshe. 1962. A survey in the dolmen fields of Shamir and Kurazin area. Mitekufat Haeven - Journal of the Israel Prehistoric Society 3: 33–40.

    Google Scholar 

  82. Stepansky, Yosef. 2005. The megalithic culture of the Corazim plateau, eastern Galilee, Israel: New evidence for a chronological and social framework. Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry 5 (1): 39–50.

    Google Scholar 

  83. Stepansky, Yosef. 2009. Kefar Nahum. Map Survey. Hadashot Arkheologiyot 121. http://www.hadashot-esi.org.il/Report_Detail_Eng.aspx?id=1148&mag_id=115.

  84. Stepansky, Yosef. 2012. Rosh Pinna - 18. The Archaeological Survey of Israel. http://survey.antiquities.org.il/index_Eng.html#/MapSurvey/2.

    Google Scholar 

  85. Swauger, James L. 1966. Dolmen studies in Palestine. The Biblical Archaeologist 29 (4): 105–114.

    Google Scholar 

  86. Tang, H. 2012. New discovery of rock art and megalithic sites in the central plain of China. Rock Art Research 29 (2): 157–170.

    Google Scholar 

  87. Tebes, Juan M. 2017. Iconographies of the sacred and power of the desert nomads: A reappraisal of the desert rock art of the late bronze/Iron age southern Levant and northwestern Arabia. Die Welt Des Orients 47 (1): 4–24.

    Google Scholar 

  88. Tepper, Yigal. 1986a. A board game in the ancient port of Achziv. In The Western Galilee antiquities, ed. Moshe Yedaya, 432–436. Tel Aviv: Misrad HaBitahon (in Hebrew).

    Google Scholar 

  89. Tepper, Yigal. 1986b. The pit surface near kibbutz Yehiam. In The Western Galilee antiquities, ed. Moshe Yedaya, 437–444. Tel Aviv: Misrad HaBitahon (in Hebrew).

    Google Scholar 

  90. Thalmannn, Jean-Paul. 2010. Tell Arqa, a prosperous city during the bronze age. Near Eastern Archaeology 73 (2–3): 86–101.

    Google Scholar 

  91. Turville-Petre, Francis. 1931. Dolmen necropolis near Kerazeh, Galilee. PEFQS 63\3: 155-166.

  92. Undeland, Joan. 1973. A cultic slab at Damiya. Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan 18: 55–59.

    Google Scholar 

  93. Ussishkin, David. 1975. Hollows, “cup-marks”, and Hittite stone monuments. Anatolian Studies 25: 85–103.

    Google Scholar 

  94. Van Den Brink, Edwin C.M., Nili Liphschitz, Dorit Lazar, and Georges Bonani. 2001. Chalcolithic dwelling remains, cup marks and olive (Olea europaea) stones at Nevallat. Israel Exploration Journal 51 (1): 36–43.

  95. Watson, Pamela. 2004. Cultural identity and wine production in northern Jordan: A case study in context. Studies in the History and Archaeology of Jordan 8: 485–502.

    Google Scholar 

  96. Weinberger, Ram, Uri Schattner, Benjamin Medvedev, Uri Frieslander, Amihai Sneh, Tehudit Harlavan, and Michael R. Gross. 2011. Convergent strike-slip across the Dead Sea fault in northern Israel imaged by high resolution seismic reflection data. Israel Journal of Earth Sciences 58: 203–216.

    Google Scholar 

  97. Wilson, Thomas. 1888. Megalithic monuments of Brittany. The American Naturalist 22 (259): 573–589.

    Google Scholar 

  98. Worrell, William H. 1921/1922. Sepulchral cup-marks, pools and conduits near Jerusalem. The Annual of the American School of Oriental Research in Jerusalem 2 (3): 80–94.

    Google Scholar 

  99. Yadin, Yigael, Yohanan Aharoni, Ruth Amiran, Trude Dothan, Immanuel Dunayevsky, and Jean Perrot. 1960. Hazor II. An account of the second season of excavations 1956. Jerusalem: Magnes Press.

    Google Scholar 

  100. Yadin, Yigael, Yohanan Aharoni, Ruth Amiran, Trude Dothan, Immanuel Dunayevsky, and Jean Perrot. 1961. Hazor III-IV. An account of the third and fourth seasons of excavations, 1957–1958. Jerusalem: Magnes Press.

    Google Scholar 

  101. Yassine, Khair. 1985. The dolmens: Construction and dating reconsidered. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 259: 63–69.

    Google Scholar 

  102. Yezerski, Irit and Pirhiya Nahshoni. 2013. The burial ground at Ḥorbat Za'aq. ‘Atiqot 76: 1-23.

  103. Younker, Randall W. 1995. Balanophagy and the bedrock industries of ancient Jordan. Studies in the History and Archaeology of Jordan V: 685–691.

  104. Zingboym, Oren. 2008. Had Nes. Hadashot Arkheologiyot 120 http://www.hadashot-esi.org.il/Report_Detail_Eng.aspx?id=844&mag_id=114.

  105. Zingboym, Oren. 2009. Shamir. Hadashot Arkheologiyot 121 http://www.hadashot-esi.org.il/Report_Detail_Eng.aspx?id=1164&mag_id=115.

  106. Zingboym, Oren. 2011. Shamir. Hadashot Arkheologiyot 123 http://www.hadashot-esi.org.il/Report_Detail_Eng.aspx?id=1831&mag_id=118.

  107. Zingboym, Oren and Anya Kleiner. In press. Had ness west. The Archaeological Survey of Israel.

Download references

Acknowledgments

The excavation at the Shamir Dolmen Field was funded by a Tel-Hai College grant. We wish to thank the excavation volunteers as well as the members of Kibbutz Shamir for their support, with particular gratitude to R. Bar Nur and Y. Ben Shalom. The 3D scanning of the rock art panels was done by the Computerized Archaeology Lab of the Institute of Archaeology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, directed by Prof. L. Grosman. We also thank the Israel Antiquity Authority (IAA) for its support, with special thanks to C. Sari, O. Zingboym, and M. Peleg (photogrammetric models, RTI & drone photography), A. Kleiner (photography of the Umm el-Kalha dolmen), A. Peretz (photography of the Shamir dolmen ceiling), and A. Shapiro (drawing of the maps). H. Tahan of the IAA drew the rock art panels. Thank you to S. Shalev and T. Kan-Cipor–Meron, the Recanati Institute for Maritime Studies, University of Haifa (identification & chemical analysis of the Meshushim knife). The Meshushim dolmen study was made possible with permission from the Israel National Parks Authority (NPA). We wish to thank D. Ben Yosef and A. Zucker for their assistance. Special thanks to P. Paley (NPA) who was the first to identify the engraved elements on the walls of the Meshushim dolmen.

Funding

Excavation at the Shamir Dolmen Field was supported by a Tel Hai College grant.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

Gonen Sharon – data collection and writing; Uri Berger – data collection and writing.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Gonen Sharon.

Ethics declarations

Conflicts of interest/competing interests

We are unaware of any conflict of interest.

Code availability

(software application or custom code): not applicable.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Sharon, G., Berger, U. Rock art in south Levantine dolmens. asian archaeol (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s41826-020-00033-3

Download citation

Keywords

  • Megalithic burials
  • Dolmens
  • Rock art
  • Hula Valley
  • Intermediate bronze age