Advertisement

Ultrafast and Highly Efficient Removal of Malachite Green from Aqueous Solution by Latvia-Originated Sphagnum Peat Moss Sorbent Applying Dispersive Solid-Phase Extraction

  • Said Hassan Lubbad
  • Karam Khalil Abu-Saqer
  • Fawzi Suliman Kodeh
Research paper

Abstract

The removal of malachite green from aqueous solution by Latvia-originated sphagnum peat moss was investigated applying dispersive solid-phase extraction. A sorbent powder, of particle size < 250 μm, was pretreated by successive refluxing of sphagnum in water, alcohol, and acetone. Foremost, the absorbance of the sphagnum matrix was assessed at the dye absorbance maxima of 254, 550, and 616 nm, applying different solution pH values. Furthermore, the optimum conditions of malachite green adsorption, such as equilibrium time, pH, adsorbent mass, and adsorbate initial concentration were investigated. In addition, the equilibrium isotherms and adsorption kinetics were studied. Fortunately, the absorbance ratio of malachite green to that of sphagnum matrix was the highest at pH 7.0 and 616 nm. Regarding dye extraction, a breakthrough in the adsorption speed was concluded, where a 2-min adsorption equilibrium contact time of 98.1% dye removal and a remarkable 30-s dye uptake of 97.3% were accomplished. Additionally, the equilibrium isotherm plot correlated well with Freundlich’s model (R2 = 0.9223). Also, the adsorption kinetic study demonstrated good correlation to the pseudo-second-order plot (R2 = 0.9999). Finally, excellent reproducibility of eight extraction replicates was demonstrated furnishing an average equilibrium dye removal of 97.8% and RSD of 1.06%.

Graphical abstract

Keywords

Ultrafast removal Malachite green dye Latvia-originated sphagnum peat moss Adsorption kinetics and isotherms 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Dr. Khalid Obeid, Geology Department at Al-Azhar University-Gaza, for his assistance in sieving the sphagnum peat moss. Moreover, the authors are grateful to the staff of the wastewater treatment plant at the Northern Gaza Governorate for their collaboration and supply of the wastewater samples.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors have seen and approved the final version of the manuscript being submitted. They warrant that the article is the authors’ original work, has not received prior publication and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. Moreover, the authors confirm the validity of research and there is no financial or personal interest or belief that could affect their objectivity. The authors state explicitly that no potential conflicts exist.

References

  1. Ahmad MA, Alrozi R (2011) Removal of malachite green dye from aqueous solution using rambutan peel-based activated carbon: equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies. Chem Eng J 171:510–516.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2011.04.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alemdaroglu T (2001) Determination methods for the acidity of solid surfaces. Commu Fac Sci Univ Ank Ser B 47:27–35. http://dergiler.ankara.edu.tr/dergiler/31/1386/15752.pdf
  3. Ali I, Asim M, Khan TA (2012) Low cost adsorbents for the removal of organic pollutants from wastewater. J Environ Manag 113:170–183.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2012.08.028 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Allen SJ, Poots VJP, McKay G, Healy JJ (1976) The removal of acid dye from effluent using natural adsorbents-I. Peat. Water Res 10:1061–1066.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0043-1354(76)90036-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baek MH, Ijagbemi CO, Se-Jin O, Kim DS (2010) Removal of malachite green from aqueous solution using degreased coffee bean. J Hazard Mater 176:820–828.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.11.110 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Banerjee S, Sharma GC, Gautam RK, Chattopadhyaya MC, Upadhyay SN, Sharma YC (2016) Removal of malachite green, a hazardous dye from aqueous solutions using Avena sativa (oat) hull as a potential adsorbent. J Mol Liq 213:162–172.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2015.11.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bouaziza F, Koubaab M, Kallela F, Ghorbel RE, Chaabouni SE (2017) Adsorptive removal of malachite green from aqueous solutions by almond gum: kinetic study and equilibrium isotherms. Int J Biol Macromol 105:56–65.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.06.106 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cheng W, Wang SG, Lu L, Gong WX, Liu XW, Gao BY, Zhang HY (2008) Removal of malachite green (MG) from aqueous solutions by native and heat-treated anaerobic granular sludge. Biochem Eng J 39:538–546.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bej.2007.10.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chieng HI, Zehra T, Lim LBL, Priyanth N, Tennakoon DTB (2014) Sorption characteristics of peat of Brunei Darussalam IV: equilibrium, thermodynamics and kinetics of adsorption of methylene blue and malachite green dyes from aqueous solution. Environ Earth Sci 72:1–15.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-014-3135-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dahri MK, Kooh MRR, Lim LBL (2014) Water remediation using low cost adsorbent wal-nut shell for removal of malachite green: equilibrium, kinetics, thermodynamic and regeneration studies. J Environ Chem Eng 2:1434–1444.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2014.07.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Etim UJ, Umoren SA, Eduok UM (2016) Coconut coir dust as a low cost adsorbent for the removal of cationic dye from aqueous solution. J Saudi Chem Soc 20:S67–S76.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jscs.2012.09.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fierro V, Torne-Fernandez V, Montane D, Celzard A (2008) Adsorption of phenol onto activated carbons having different textural and surface properties. Microporous Mesoporous Mater 111:276–284.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micromeso.2007.08.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Garg VK, Kumar R, Gupta R (2004) Removal of malachite green dye from aqueous solution by adsorption using agro-industry waste: a case study of Prosopis cineraria. Dyes Pigments 62:1–10.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dyepig.2003.10.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Girardello F, Rovani S, Giovanela M, Fernandes AN (2016) Removal of pyrene from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto Brazilian peat samples. Adsorpt Sci Technol 34(9–10):538–551.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0263617416670168 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gonzales APS, Firmino MA, Nomura CS, Rocha FRP, Oliveira PV, Gaubeur I (2009) Peat as a natural solid-phase for copper preconcentration and determination in a multicommuted flow system coupled to flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta 636:198–204.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2009.01.047 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hemmati F, Norouzbeigi R, Sarbisheh F, Shayesteh H (2016) Malachite green removal using modified sphagnum peat moss as a low-cost biosorbent: kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies. J Taiwan Inst Chem E 58:482–489.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtice.2015.07.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ho YS, McKay G (1998) Sorption of dye from aqueous solution by peat. Chem Eng J 70:115–124.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0923-0467(98)00076-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ho YS, Porter JF, McKay G (2002) Equilibrium isotherm studies for the sorption of divalent metal ions onto peat: copper, nickel, and lead single component system. Water Air Soil Pollut 141:1–33.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1021304828010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Khattri SD, Singh MK (2009) Removal of malachite green from dye wastewater using neem sawdust by adsorption. J Hazard Mater 167:1089–1094.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.01.101 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kyziol J (2002) Effect of physical properties and cation exchange capacity on sorption of heavy metals on peats. Pol J Environ Stud 11(6):713–718. https://www.pjoes.com/pdf/11.6/713-718.pdf
  21. Mall ID, Srivastava VC, Agarwal NK, Mishra IM (2005) Adsorptive removal of malachite green dye from aqueous solution by bagasse fly ash and activated carbon-kinetic study and equilibrium isotherm analyse. Colloids Surf A 264:17–28.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2005.03.027 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Moazezi N, Baghdadi M, Hickner MA (2018) Modeling and experimental evaluation of Ni(II) and Pb(II) sorption from aqueous solutions using a polyaniline/CoFeC6N6 nanocomposite. J Chem Eng Data 63(3):741–750.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jced.7b00897 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Naseeruteen F, Abdul Hamid NS, Suah FBM, Ngah WSW, Mehamod FS (2017) Adsorption of malachite green from aqueous solution by using novel chitosan ionic liquid beads. Int J Biol Macromol Online.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.09.111 Google Scholar
  24. Njoku VO, Foo KY, Asif M, Hameed BH (2014) Preparation of activated carbons from rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) peel by microwave-induced KOH activation for acid yellow 17 dye adsorption. Chem Eng J 25:198–204.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2014.03.115 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Salman JM, Hameed BH (2010) Removal of insecticide carbofuran from aqueous solutions by banana stalks activated carbon. J Hazard Mater 176:814–819.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.11.107 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Sartape AS, Mandhare AM, Jadhav VV, Raut PD, Anuse MA, Kolekar SS (2017) Removal of malachite green dye from aqueous solution with adsorption technique using Limonia acidissima (wood apple) shell as low cost adsorbent. Arab J Chem 10:S3229–S3238.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2013.12.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sharma UYC (2013) Removal of malachite green from aqueous solutions by adsorption on to timber waste. IJEEM 4(6):631–638. http://www.ripublication.com/ijeem.htm
  28. Visa M, Chelaru AM (2014) Hydrothermally modified fly ash for heavy metals and dyes removal in advanced wastewater treatment. Appl Surf Sci 303:14–22.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2014.02.025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Zhang L, Zhang H, Guo W, Tian Y (2014) Removal of malachite green and crystal violet cationic dyes from aqueous solution using activated sintering process red mud. Appl Clay Sci 93–94:85–93.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2014.03.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Zhang Z, Wang W, Wang A (2015) Highly effective removal of methylene blue using functionalized attapulgite via hydrothermal process. J Environ Sci 33:106–115.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2014.12.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© University of Tehran 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Said Hassan Lubbad
    • 1
  • Karam Khalil Abu-Saqer
    • 1
  • Fawzi Suliman Kodeh
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryAl-Azhar University-GazaGazaPalestine

Personalised recommendations