Evaluation of Selected Pharmaceuticals on Plant Stress Markers in Wheat

  • Etem Osma
  • Yavuz Cigir
  • Adcharee Karnjanapiboonwong
  • Todd A. Anderson
Research paper


Herein we report on the interactions between two common pharmaceuticals and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) enter wastewater treatment plants from industrial and household sewers. These chemicals are not completely removed during wastewater processing, and in many countries, are being found in drinking water sources and in surface waters downstream of wastewater treatment plants. If treated wastewater effluent is re-used to irrigate crops, the potential adverse interactions between PPCPs and plants needs to be understood. β-estradiol and gemfibrozil appeared to affect wheat seedlings through oxidative stress, as indicated by increases in lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide, carotenoid, and antioxidant enzyme activities. Additionally, plant cell damage in wheat seedlings was indicated by an increase in electrolyte leakage. Although our study was not designed to elucidate possible mechanisms, the changes in activity of plant enzymes in response to some pharmaceuticals is likely the consequence of oxidative stress and the initiation of pathways to protect the plant from further cell damage.


PPCPs Gemfibrozil Plant enzymes Triticum aestivum L. 



This study was supported in part by Erzincan University BAP FEN-A-080715-0159, by a TÜBITAK 2219 International Postdoctoral Research Fellowship to Etem Osma, and a TÜBITAK 2221-Visiting Scientist Program Fellowship to Todd Anderson. This study is of the second author’s M.S. thesis.


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Copyright information

© University of Tehran 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Etem Osma
    • 1
  • Yavuz Cigir
    • 1
  • Adcharee Karnjanapiboonwong
    • 2
  • Todd A. Anderson
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BiologyErzincan UniversityErzincanTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Environmental ToxicologyTexas Tech UniversityLubbockUSA

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