Formative Design as a Framework for Implementing Teacher Professional Development on Design Thinking


This study employed designed-based research to explore formative design as both a methodology for PD and as the focus of the PD content. Five 7-h PD sessions were offered to 220 teachers across five schools in India. Results indicated that formative design was useful for planning, implementing, and iterating PD that was meaningful for participants and that teachers were open to aspects of the design process, but struggled with making changes to their pedagogy.

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Azukas, M.E., Gaudelli, W. Formative Design as a Framework for Implementing Teacher Professional Development on Design Thinking. J Form Des Learn 4, 22–33 (2020).

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  • Formative design
  • Design thinking
  • Professional development
  • Indian education