Formative Design as a Framework for Implementing Teacher Professional Development on Design Thinking

Abstract

This study employed designed-based research to explore formative design as both a methodology for PD and as the focus of the PD content. Five 7-h PD sessions were offered to 220 teachers across five schools in India. Results indicated that formative design was useful for planning, implementing, and iterating PD that was meaningful for participants and that teachers were open to aspects of the design process, but struggled with making changes to their pedagogy.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Baeck, A., & Gremett, P. (2012). Design thinking. In H. Degen & X. Yuan (Eds.), UX best practices: how to achieve more imporact with user experience (pp. 229–233). New York: McGraw-Hill.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Britzman, D. (1991). Practice makes practice: a critical study of learning to teach. Albany: SUNY Press.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Bruton, A. (2010). Teaching and learning for the 21st century. In International Council for Small Business: International Conference. Cincinnati: ICSB.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Buchanan, R. (1992). Wicked problems in design thinking. Design Issues, 8(2), Spring), 5–21.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Census Data 2001/India at a glance. (2001). New Delhi: registrar general & census commissioner. India: Ministry of Home Affairs Retrieved from http://www.censusindia.gov.in/Census_Data_2001/India_at_glance/popu1.aspx.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Constitution of India. (1950). Retrieved on December 2, 2019 from https://www.india.gov.in/my-government/constitution-india/constitution-india-full-text

  7. Dede, C., Jass Ketelhut, D., Whitehouse, P., Breit, L., & McCloskey, E. (2008). A research agenda for online teacher professional development. Journal of Teacher Education, 60(1), 8–19.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Dewey, J. (1916/1944). Democracy and education. New York: Free Press.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Dolak, F. Uebernickel, F., & Brenner, W. (2013). Design thinking and design science research. Position paper, DERIST 2013. Institute of Information Management, University of St. Gallen, 1-11.

  10. Friesen, S. & Jacobsen, M. (2015). A design-based approach to teachers’ professional learning: Through a design-based, iterative learning process, classroom teachers gain practical knowledge of “know-how” and “know-why.” Canadian education association. Retrieved from https://www.edcan.ca/articles/a-design-based-approach-to-teachers-professional-learning/. Accessed 1 July 2019

  11. Gupta, L. (2018). Discourse of teacher education in India. In K. Kumar (Ed.), Routledge handbook of education in India: debates, practices and policies (pp. 248–269). London: Routledge Taylor Francis Group.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Johansson U. & Woodilla, J. (2009). Towards an epistemological merger of design thinking. In 8th European Academy of Design Conference. 1-3 April 2009, the Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen Scotland.

  13. Juneja, N. (2018). Education in urban areas. In K. Kumar (Ed.), Routledge handbook of education in India: debates, practices and policies (pp. 49–62). London: Routledge Taylor Francis Group.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Kumar, K. (2018). Introduction. In K. Kumar (Ed.), Routledge handbook of education in India: debates, practices and policies (pp. 18–32). London: Routledge Taylor Francis Group.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Kundu, P. (2019). To improve the quality of school education, India must spend more on training teachers. IndiaSpend Retrieved on July 21, 2019 from https://educationcheck.indiaspend.com/to-fix-poor-quality-of-school-education-teacher-training-holds-the-key/.

  16. Kwek, D. (2011). Innovation in the classroom: design thinking for 21st century learning. Stanford University. Unpublished Master’s Thesis.

  17. Kyza, E. A., & Constantinou, C. P. (2008) A design-based approach to professional development: The need to see teachers as learners to achieve excellence in inquiry-based science education. In Zumbach, J., Schwartz, N., Seufert, T., & Kester, L. (Eds.), Beyond knowledge: The legacy of competence. Springer, Dordrecht.

  18. LaDousa, C. (2018). Mind the (language-medium) gap. In K. Kumar (Ed.), Routledge handbook of education in India: debates, practices and policies (pp. 108–133). London: Routledge Taylor Francis Group.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Leifer, L. J., & Steinert, M. (2011). Dancing with ambiguity: causality behavior, design thinking, and triple-loop learning. Information Knowledge Systems Management, 10, 151–173. https://doi.org/10.3233/IKS-2012-019.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Lor, R. (2017). Design thinking in education: a critical review of literature. International academic conference on social sciences and management. 24–26 May, 2017, Bangkok, Thailand.

  21. Luka, I. (2014). Design thinking in pedagogy. Journal of Education Culture and Society, 2, 63–74.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Patton, M. Q. (1999). Enhancing the quality and credibility of qualitative analysis. Health Services Research, 34, 1189–1208.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Ray, B. (2012). Design thinking lessons for the classroom. Retrieved from https://www.edutopia.org/blog/design-thinking-betty-ray

  24. Rittel H.W.J. & Webber, M.M. (1972). Dilemmas in the general theory of planning. Working paper presented at the Institute of Urban and Regional Development, University of California, Berkely, November, 1972.

  25. Robinson, K. (2010). Changing educational paradigms: A TED talk. Retrieved on December 2, 2019 from https://www.ted.com/talks/ken_robinson_changing_education_paradigms

  26. Sahlburg, P. (2016). The global reform movement and its impact on schooling. In K. Mundy, A. Green, B. Linguard, & A. Verger (Eds.), The handbook of global education policy (pp. 173–181). Hoboken: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Sarangapani, P. M. (2018). Institutional diversity and quality. In K. Kumar (Ed.), Routledge handbook of education in India: debates, practices and policies (pp. 63–95). London: Routledge Taylor Francis Group.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Sinek, S. (2009). How great leaders inspire action. A TED talk. Retrieve on December 2, 2019 from https://www.ted.com/talks/simon_sinek_how_great_leaders_inspire_action?language=en

  29. Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. M. (1990). Basics of qualitative research: grounded theory procedures and techniques. New York: Sage Publications, Inc..

    Google Scholar 

  30. Varadachary, A. (2010). Raising the bar on hope: Pratham USA annual report. Retrieved on November 23, 2019 from https://prathamusa.org/website-admin/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/2010_annualreport.pdf

  31. Wang, F., & Hannafin, M. J. (2005). Design-based research and technology-enhanced learning environments. Educational Technology Research and Development, 53(4), 5–23.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Zinger, D., Naranjo, A., Amador, I., Gilbertson, N., & Warschauer, M. (2017). A design-based research approach to improving professional development and teacher knowledge: the case of the Smithsonian Learning Lab. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 17(3), 388–410.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Zupan, B., Stritar, R., & Naberg, A. S. (2014). Design thinking as a course design methodology. In I. Filipovic, G. Kozina, & F. Galetic (Eds.), Economic and Social Development: 8th International Scientific Conference on Economic and Social Development & 4th Eastern European ESD Conference: Building Resilient Economy, Book of Proceedings (pp. 465-476). Verazdin, Croatia: Varazdin Development and Entrepreneurship Agency, in cooperation with University North. Retrieved from https://www.esd-conference.com/upload/book_of_proceedings/Book_of_Proceedings_esd_ZG_2014.pdf. Accessed July 2 2019

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to M. Elizabeth Azukas.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Azukas, M.E., Gaudelli, W. Formative Design as a Framework for Implementing Teacher Professional Development on Design Thinking. J Form Des Learn 4, 22–33 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s41686-020-00042-6

Download citation

Keywords

  • Formative design
  • Design thinking
  • Professional development
  • Indian education