Transport characteristics of space charge-dominated multi-species deuterium beam in electrostatic low-energy beam line

  • Xiao-Long Lu
  • Yu Zhang
  • Jun-Run Wang
  • Zhi-Wu Huang
  • Zhan-Wen Ma
  • Yao Yang
  • Ze-En Yao


The transport characteristics of a space charge-dominated multi-species deuterium beam consisting of \( D_{1}^{ + } \), \( D_{2}^{ + } \), and \( D_{3}^{ + } \) particles in an electrostatic low-energy beam line are studied. First, the envelope equations of the primary \( D_{1}^{ + } \) beam are derived considering the space charge effects caused by all particles. Second, the evolution of the envelope of the multi-species deuterium beam is simulated using the PIC code TRACK, with the results showing a significant effect of the unwanted beam on the transport of the primary beam. Finally, different injected beam parameters are used to study beam matching, and a new beam extraction system for the existing duoplasmatron source is designed to obtain the ideal injected beam parameters that allow a \( D_{1}^{ + } \) beam of up to 50 mA to pass unobstructed through the electrostatic low-energy beam transport line in the presence of an unwanted (\( D_{2}^{ + } \), \( D_{3}^{ + } \)) beam of 20 mA; at the same time, distortions of the beam emittance and particle distributions are observed.


Envelope equation Space charge effects Multi-species beam Electrostatic LEBT 


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Copyright information

© Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Nuclear Society, Science Press China and Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Nuclear Science and TechnologyLanzhou UniversityLanzhouChina
  2. 2.Engineering Research Center for Neutron Application, Ministry of EducationLanzhou UniversityLanzhouChina
  3. 3.Institute of Modern PhysicsChinese Academy of SciencesLanzhouChina

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