Associations between 24-h sleep–wake patterns and cardiometabolic risk factors in youth seeking mental health care


One hundred and eleven youth with mental ill-health underwent systematic clinical, laboratory and actigraphy monitoring to report associations between 24-h sleep–wake patterns and cardiometabolic risk factors. Multiple linear regression analyses, controlling for medication usage and class, age and sex, found significant associations between: later sleep onset and BMI; standard variation (SV) in the sleep offset with both insulin values and the updated homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR) values; and the SV of the sleep midpoint with both poorer fasting insulin, and HOMA2-IR values. Further longitudinal research is required to determine the causative relationships between 24-h sleep–wake cycle patterns, and cardiometabolic outcomes.

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This study was partially funded by a philanthropic gift (The Liu McCabe Family Scholarship awarded to C.E.W), a National Health and Medical Research Council Australia Fellowship (No. 511921, awarded to I.B.H) and a philanthropic gift (the Caroline Quinn Research Grant awarded to J.S.C). The funders of this study had no involvement in the: study design; collection, analysis and reporting of the data; writing of the report; or decision to submit the paper for publication.

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Correspondence to Chloe E. Wilson.

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The Human Research Ethics Committee of the University of Sydney approved our study.

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All the procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

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Wilson, C.E., Carpenter, J.S., Song, Y. et al. Associations between 24-h sleep–wake patterns and cardiometabolic risk factors in youth seeking mental health care. Sleep Biol. Rhythms (2021).

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  • Youth mental ill-health
  • Cardiometabolic risk factors
  • Sleep–wake patterns
  • Actigraphy
  • Psychopathology