Examining the association between obstructive sleep apnea and cardiometabolic risk factors in the elderly
- 62 Downloads
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are common chronic disorders associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The goal of our research is to identify the associations between OSA and MetS, including different components of MetS, in adults.
We used data from the 2007–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which included 5909 eligible subjects (2898 men, 3011 women), aged 20 and over, who had undergone a complete medical examination and had self-reported three OSA symptom items. The primary study outcome was possible obstructive sleep apnea (pOSA) and MetS components.
Participants in the pOSA group had significantly more MetS components (p < 0.001). In the group aged ≥ 60 years, there was a stronger relationship between pOSA and MetS components. After additional adjustment, the odds ratios for pOSA among those with 2, 4, and 5 MetS components were 3.11, 3.19, and 4.89, respectively (p < 0.05).
In conclusion, our study indicates that the risk of pOSA is higher in association with increased MetS factors, particularly among the elderly. Leading a healthy lifestyle may help reduce OSA risk in elderly patients with MetS.
KeywordsObstructive sleep apnea Metabolic syndrome Visceral obesity Inflammation
There was no acknowledgement directly for this manuscript.
Chen-Jung Wu contributed to the design of the study, was responsible for the management and retrieval of data, contributed to initial data analysis and interpretation, drafted the initial manuscript. Chen-Jung Wu, Tung-Wei Kao, Yaw-Wen Chang, and Wei-Liang Chen decided upon the data collection methods. Chen-Jung Wu and Wei-Liang Chen were also responsible for the data analysis decisions. Wei-Liang Chen conceptualized and designed the study, supervised all aspects of the study, critically reviewed and revised the manuscript, and approved the final manuscript as submitted. All authors meet the ICMJE criteria for authorship.
The authors received no funding for this work.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declared that they had no competing interests.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- 1.Somers VK, White DP, Amin R, Abraham WT, Costa F, Culebras A, et al. Sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease: an American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology Foundation Scientific Statement from the American Heart Association Council for High Blood Pressure Research Professional Education Committee, Council on Clinical Cardiology, Stroke Council, and Council on Cardiovascular Nursing. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008;52:686–717.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 2.Epstein LJ, Kristo D, Strollo PJ Jr, Friedman N, Malhotra A, Patil SP, et al. Clinical guideline for the evaluation, management and long-term care of obstructive sleep apnea in adults. J Clin Sleep Med: JCSM. 2009; 5: 263 – 76.Google Scholar
- 5.Redline S, Yenokyan G, Gottlieb DJ, Shahar E, O’Connor GT, Resnick HE, et al. Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea and incident stroke: the sleep heart health study. Am J Respir Critical Care Med. 2010;182 269 – 77.Google Scholar
- 8.Punjabi NM. The epidemiology of adult obstructive sleep apnea. Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society. 2008;5:136–43.Google Scholar
- 11.Diaz K, Faverio P, Hospenthal A, Restrepo MI, Amuan ME, Pugh MJ. Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with higher healthcare utilization in elderly patients. Ann Thoracic Med. 2014;9:92–8.Google Scholar
- 16.Liaw FY, Kao TW, Hsueh JT, Chan YH, Chang YW, Chen WL. Exploring the Link between the Components of Metabolic Syndrome and the Risk of Depression. BioMed Res Int. 2015;586251.Google Scholar