Mechanical strength characteristics of fiber-reinforced pond ash for pavement application

Abstract

The pavement construction sector throughout the world is facing a major challenge of non-availability of suitable construction materials. On the other side, many waste/sub-products are being generated from manufacturing/production units causing environmental pollution. One of such waste materials is pond ash produced from thermal electric power plants, which can be utilized as an alternative construction material in place of traditional materials. In this context, an attempt was made on fiber-reinforced pond ash as subbase layer of flexible pavements to understand its engineering behavior by conducting static (California bearing ratio, CBR) and dynamic (repeated load triaxial, RLT) tests. Randomly distributed polypropylene fibers of various proportions were used in pond ash as reinforcement inclusions. The test results were analyzed to address the influence of fiber on conventional parameters of pond ash such as CBR, resilient modulus (MR), and permanent strain (ϵp). Also, the influence of confining (σc) and deviatoric stress (σd) levels on MR as well as ϵp with load cycles have been investigated for both unreinforced and reinforced pond ash. The results obtained have shown that the inclusion of fiber improves the CBR, MR and ϵp characteristics of the pond ash. With an increase in stress levels (σc and σd), the MR of reinforced pond ash increased compared to non-reinforced ash. Irrespective of the fiber content in pond ash, permanent strain values were increased with an increase in the number of loading cycles and cyclic deviatoric stresses. However, with the introduction of fiber, the rate of strain development in pond ash was reduced significantly. Furthermore, the experimentally obtained MR and ϵp values were validated against existing models established by previous researchers. From the above findings, it can be concluded that fiber-reinforced pond ash can be used effectively in pavement layer applications.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7

References

  1. 1.

    Patel S, Shahu JT (2018) Comparison of industrial waste mixtures for use in subbase course of flexible pavements. J Mater Civ Eng 30(7):04018124. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0002320

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Patel D, Kumar R, Chauhan KA, Patel S (2019) Experimental and modeling studies of resilient modulus and permanent strain of stabilized fly ash. J Mater Civ Eng 31(8):06019005. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0002798

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Arora S, Kumar A (2019) Bearing capacity of strip footing resting on fiber-reinforced pond ash overlying soft clay. Innov Infrastruct Solut 4(1):34. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41062-019-0221-4

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Sridharan A, Prakash KM (2007) Geotechnical engineering characterisation of coal ashes. CBS Publ Distrib. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0002798

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Ghosh A (2010) Compaction characteristics and bearing ratio of pond ash stabilized with lime and phosphogypsum. J Mater Civ Eng 22(4):343–351. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0000028

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Buragohain P, Garg A, Lin P, Hong M, Yi Z, Sreedeep S (2018) Exploring potential of fly ash-bentonite mix as a liner material in waste containment systems under concept of Sponge City. Adv Civil Eng Mater 7(1):46–70. https://doi.org/10.1520/ACEM20170092

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Sridharan A, Pandian NS, Srinivasa Rao P (1998) Shear strength characteristics of some Indian fly ashes. Proc Inst Civil Eng Ground Improv 2(3):141–146. https://doi.org/10.1680/gi.1998.020304

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Kaniraj SR, Gayathri V (2003) Geotechnical behaviour of fly ash mixed with randomly oriented fiber inclusions. Geotext Geomembr 21(3):123–149. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0266-1144(03)00005-0

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Moghal AAB (2017) State-of-the-art review on the role of fly ashes in geotechnical and geoenvironmental applications. J Mater Civ Eng 29(8):04017072. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0001897

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Lav A, Hilmi M, Aysen L, Goktepe AB (2006) Analysis and design of a stabilized fly ash as pavement base material. Fuel 85(16):2359–2370. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2006.05.017

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Sarkar R, Dawson AR (2017) Economic assessment of use of pond ash in pavements. Int J Pavement Eng 18(7):578–594. https://doi.org/10.1080/10298436.2015.1095915

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Kumar P, Singh SP (2008) Fiber-reinforced fly ash subbases in rural roads. J Transp Eng 134(4):171–180. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-947X(2008)134:4(171)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Tang CS, Shi B, Zhao LZ (2010) Interfacial shear strength of fiber reinforced soil. Geotext Geomembr 28(1):54–62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geotexmem.2009.10.001

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Koerner RM (2012) Designing with geosynthetics, vol 1. Xlibris Corporation, New York

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Li J, Tang C, Wang D, Pei X, Shi B (2014) Effect of discrete fiber reinforcement on soil tensile strength. J Rock Mech Geotech Eng 6(2):133–137. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrmge.2014.01.003

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Jayanthi PN, Singh DN (2016) Utilization of sustainable materials for soil stabilization: state-of-the-art. Adv Civil Eng Mater 5(1):46–79. https://doi.org/10.1520/ACEM20150013

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Sridhar R, Kumar MP (2018) Cyclic response of single-layer coir-mat-reinforced sand. Innov Infrastruct Solut 3(1):13. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41062-017-0119-y

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Chakraborty TK, Dasgupta SP (1996) Randomly reinforced fly ash foundation material. In: Indian geotechnical conference, Vol. 1, pp 231–235

  19. 19.

    Kumar R, Kanaujia VK, Chandra D (1999) Engineering behaviour of fiber-reinforced pond ash and silty sand. Geosynth Int 6(6):509–518. https://doi.org/10.1680/gein.6.0162

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Kaniraj SR, Havanagi VG (2001) Behaviour of cement-stabilized fiber-reinforced fly ash-soil mixtures. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 127(7):574–584. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2001)127:7(574)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Tiwari SK, Ghiya A (2013) Behaviour of randomly oriented fiber reinforced fly ash. Electron J Geotech Eng 18:3107–3128

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Bera AK, Ghosh A, Ghosh A (2009) Shear strength response of reinforced pond ash. Constr Build Mater 23(6):2386–2393. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2001)127:7(574)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Chore HS, Kumthe AA, Abnave SB, Shinde SS, Dhole SS, Kamerkar SG (2011) Performance evaluation of polypropylene fibers on sand-fly ash mixtures in highways. J Civ Eng 39(1):91–102

    Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Kumar JS, Sharma P (2018) Geotechnical properties of pond ash mixed with cement kiln dust and polypropylene fiber. J Mater Civ Eng 30(8):04018154. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0002334

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Dhar S, Hussain M (2018) The strength behaviour of lime-stabilised plastic fiber-reinforced clayey soil. Road Mater Pavement Des. https://doi.org/10.1080/14680629.2018.1468803

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Yadav JS, Tiwari SK, Shekhwat P (2018) Strength behaviour of clayey soil mixed with pond ash, cement and randomly distributed fibers. Transp Infrastruct Geotechnol 5(3):191–209. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40515-018-0056-z

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Puppala Anand J, Hoyos Laureano R, Potturi Ajay K (2011) Resilient moduli response of moderately cement-treated reclaimed asphalt pavement aggregates. J Mater Civ Eng 23(7):990–998. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0000268

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Arulrajah A, Piratheepan J, Mahdi MD, Bo MW (2012) Resilient moduli response of recycled construction and demolition materials in pavement subbase applications. J Mater Civ Eng 25(12):1920–1928. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0000766

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    AASHTO T-307 (2000) Determining the resilient modulus of soils and aggregate materials. Washington, DC: AASHTO. https://doi.org/10.1520/STP12519S

  30. 30.

    National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) (2004) Guide for mechanistic-empirical design of new and rehabilitated pavement structures. National Cooperative Highway Research Program 1-37 A. http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/archive/mepdg/2appendices_RR.pdf

  31. 31.

    Qian J, Liang G, Ling J, Wang S (2014) Laboratory research on resilient modulus of lime-stabilized soil. In: Ground improvement and geosynthetics, pp 158–167. https://doi.org/10.1061/9780784413401.016

  32. 32.

    Hoover JM, Moeller DT, Pitt JM, Smith SG, Wainaina NW (1982) Performance of randomly oriented fiber reinforced roadway soils. Lowa DOT Project-HR-211, Department of Transportation, Highway Division, Lowa State University. http://publications.iowa.gov/id/eprint/17029

  33. 33.

    Lindh E, Eriksson L (1990) Sand reinforced with plastic fibers: a field experiment. In: Proceedings of international reinforced soil conference, Glasgow, UK, pp 471–474

  34. 34.

    Tingle JS, Santoni RL, Webster SL (2002) Full-scale field tests of discrete fiber-reinforced sand. J Transp Eng 128(1):9–16. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-947X(2002)128:1(9)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Sreedhar MVS, Reddy YS, Jyothi A (2011) CBR characteristics of pond ash with reinforcement in fabric and fiber forms. In: The Indian Precambrian, Proceedings of Indian geotechnical conference, pp 549–552. https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cluster=5234730410431031613&hl=en&as_sdt=0,5

  36. 36.

    Jha JN, Choudhary AK, Gill KS, Shukla SK (2014) Behaviour of plastic waste fiber-reinforced industrial wastes in pavement applications. Int J Geotech Eng 8(3):277–286. https://doi.org/10.1179/1939787914Y.0000000044

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Singh SP, Sharan A (2014) Strength characteristics of compacted pond ash. Geomech Geoeng 9(1):9–17. https://doi.org/10.1080/17486025.2013.772661

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    ASTM C618-89 (xxxx) Standard specification for coal fly ash and raw or calcined natural pozzolan for use as a mineral admixture in concrete. West Conshohocken, PA

  39. 39.

    IS 2720 (Part 7), Determination of water content-dry density relation using light compaction, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India

  40. 40.

    IS: 2720 (Part 16) (1987) Laboratory Determination of CBR, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India

  41. 41.

    Christopher BR, Schwartz CW, Boudreaux R, Berg RR (2006) Geotechnical aspects of pavements (No. FHWA-NHI-05-037). United States. Federal Highway Administration. https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/40767

  42. 42.

    Pidwerbesky B (2004) AustRoads pavement design. In Mechanistic Design and Evaluation of Pavements 2004 Workshop. http://pavementanalysis.geosolve.co.nz/images/papers/documents/pavementsworkshop04/Pid%20Pave%20Design%202004.pdf

  43. 43.

    Al-Refeai T, Al-Suhaibani A (1998) Dynamic and static characterization of polypropylene fiber-reinforced dune sand. Geosynth Int 5(5):443–458. https://doi.org/10.1680/gein.5.0132

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Dev KL, Robinson RG (2015) Pond ash based controlled low strength flowable fills for geotechnical engineering applications. Int J Geosynth Ground Eng 1(4):32. https://doi.org/10.1520/ACEM20180098

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Heineck KS, Coop MR, Consoli NC (2005) Effect of microreinforcement of soils from very small to large shear strains. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 131(8):1024–1033. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2005)131:8(1024)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Consoli NC, Heineck KS, Casagrande MDT, Coop MR (2007) Shear strength behaviour of fiber-reinforced sand considering triaxial tests under distinct stress paths. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 133(11):1466–1469. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2007)133:11(1466)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Consoli NC, Bassani MAA, Festugato L (2010) Effect of fiber-reinforcement on the strength of cemented soils. Geotext Geomembr 28(4):344–351. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geotexmem.2010.01.005

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    Ling X, Li P, Zhang F, Zhao Y, Li Y, An L (2017) Permanent deformation characteristics of coarse grained subgrade soils under train-induced repeated load. Adv Mater Sci Eng. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/6241479

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge MHRD and National Institute of Technology Warangal.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Sudhakar Mogili.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Mogili, S., Mohammed, A.G., Mudavath, H. et al. Mechanical strength characteristics of fiber-reinforced pond ash for pavement application. Innov. Infrastruct. Solut. 5, 70 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s41062-020-00313-y

Download citation

Keywords

  • Pond ash
  • Fiber
  • Pavement, CBR, resilient modulus
  • Permanent strain