Topics in Current Chemistry

, 374:60 | Cite as

Application of Radiation Chemistry to Some Selected Technological Issues Related to the Development of Nuclear Energy

  • Krzysztof Bobrowski
  • Konrad Skotnicki
  • Tomasz Szreder
Review
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Applications of Radiation Chemistry

Abstract

The most important contributions of radiation chemistry to some selected technological issues related to water-cooled reactors, reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes, and fuel evolution during final radioactive waste disposal are highlighted. Chemical reactions occurring at the operating temperatures and pressures of reactors and involving primary transients and stable products from water radiolysis are presented and discussed in terms of the kinetic parameters and radiation chemical yields. The knowledge of these parameters is essential since they serve as input data to the models of water radiolysis in the primary loop of light water reactors and super critical water reactors. Selected features of water radiolysis in heterogeneous systems, such as aqueous nanoparticle suspensions and slurries, ceramic oxides surfaces, nanoporous, and cement-based materials, are discussed. They are of particular concern in the primary cooling loops in nuclear reactors and long-term storage of nuclear waste in geological repositories. This also includes radiation-induced processes related to corrosion of cladding materials and copper-coated iron canisters, dissolution of spent nuclear fuel, and changes of bentonite clays properties. Radiation-induced processes affecting stability of solvents and solvent extraction ligands as well oxidation states of actinide metal ions during recycling of the spent nuclear fuel are also briefly summarized.

Keywords

High pressure and temperature water radiolysis Water radiolysis in heterogeneous systems Radiation-induced processes in nuclear fuel cycles Radiation-induced processes in nuclear waste repositories 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the US Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Science under award number DE-FC02-04ER15533 (KB), the Euratom-Fission Collaborative Project SACSESS, FP7-Fission-2012-323282, co-financed by the Grant No. 2924/7. PR-EURATOM/2013/2 donated by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education (Poland) (TS), and the Strategic Research Project P/J/7/170071/12 financed by the National Research and Development Centre (KS). One of us (KB) would like to thank Professor Ian Carmichael for his hospitality during the stay. This is document number NDRL-5116 from the Notre Dame Radiation Laboratory.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg (outside the USA) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre of Radiation Research and TechnologyInstitute of Nuclear Chemistry and TechnologyWarsawPoland
  2. 2.Radiation LaboratoryUniversity of Notre DameNotre DameUSA

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