Brazilian Palace of Congress: a Study of the Marble Cladding System State of Conservation

Abstract

The Brazilian Palace of Congress designed by Oscar Niemeyer is a relevant cultural heritage in the scenario of modern Brazilian and South American architecture. Its 29-story towers coated with white marble are a representative example of the high-rise buildings. 60 years after the building inauguration, arises an urgent need to monitor the aging of the marble cladding system and plan its conservation. This article presents a study with an integrated approach, considering the cladding system related to the architecture and constructive solutions, with the aim to investigate how the building is aging. The documentary and field surveys made it possible to carry out statistical studies of the cladding system state of conservation, its damage, criticality and exposure conditions. The behavior of building in height was verified, which was aging evenly, given that the statistical tests showed no difference between the analyzed sections. Likewise, it was possible to prove how decisive is the solar orientation for the system degradation. When comparing the correlation maps of the two facades, the Northwest one showed a strong correlation between moist area and biological colonization by microorganisms, which in turn had an intense correlation also with efflorescence. The greater criticality of damage noticed on the Northwest gable indicated that this solar orientation is subject to the most severe exposure conditions. State of Conservation Scenarios pointed out that architectural solutions and construction practices favored the system's durability. As a future scenario, the importance of planned monitoring actions is highlighted, within the scope of a Conservation Plan.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12

Code availability

(Software application or custom code) not applicable.

References

  1. 1.

    Segawa H (2010) Arquitetura do Brasil 1900–1990, 3rd edn. Editora da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Prudon T (2008) Preservation of modern architecture. John Wiley, New York

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Macdonald S (2003) 20th century heritage: recognition, protection anda practical challenges. In: ICOMOS World Report 2002–2003 on monuments and sites in danger. ICOMOS, Paris

  4. 4.

    Moreira FD, Pinto FH (2018) Restoration procedures on surfaces of exposed concrete and values of modern architecture: the case of headquarters Celpe building—energy company of Pernambuco. Concrete and modernism: technology and conservation. Preservation Technology Dossier 14. Docomomo US, New York, pp 24–31

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Macdonald S (1996) Modern matters: principles and practice of conserving recent architecture. Donhead Publishers, Shaftesbury

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Macdonald S (2009) Materiality, monumentality and modernism: continuing challenges in conserving twentieth-century places. In: (Un) loved modern: conservation of 20th century heritage conference, Sydney

  7. 7.

    Santos MS (2016) Entre a transparência e a espessura: a moderna fachada do edifício comercial americano 1945–1975. Phd Thesis, Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie

  8. 8.

    Ficher S (1994) Edifícios altos no Brasil. Espaço Debate 24(37):61–76

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Silva EG (2012) Os palácios originais de Brasília. Phd Thesis, Universidade de Brasília

  10. 10.

    Costa L, Niemeyer O (1958) Praça dos Três Poderes e Palácio do Congresso Nacional. Módulo 2(9):14–21

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    ASSOCIAÇÃO BRASILEIRA DE NORMAS TÉCNICAS (1996) ABNT NBR 13707—Projeto de revestimento de paredes e estruturas com placa de rocha. ABNT, Rio de Janeiro

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    ASSOCIAÇÃO BRASILEIRA DE NORMAS TÉCNICAS (2010) Rochas para revestimento—Projeto, execução e inspeção de revestimento de fachadas de edificações com placas fixadas por insertos metálicos. ABNT, Rio de janeiro

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    ASSOCIAÇÃO BRASILEIRA DE NORMAS TÉCNICAS (2020) ABNT NBR 16747—Inspeção predial—Diretrizes, conceitos, terminologia e procedimento. ABNT, Rio de janeiro

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Brito J, Pereira C, Silvestre JD, Flores-Colen I (2020) Expert knowledge-based inspection systems. Inspection, diagnosis and repair of the building envelope. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-42446-6

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Faqih F, Zayed T, Soliman E (2020) Factors and defects analysis of physical and environmental condition of buildings. J Build Pathol Rehabil. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41024-020-00084-0

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Bauer E, Piazzarollo CB, Souza JS, Santos DG (2020) Relative importance of pathologies in the severity of facade degradation. J Build Pathol Rehabil. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41024-020-0072-6

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    De Souza JS, Bauer E, Nascimento MLM, Capuzzo VMS, Zanoni VAG (2016) Study of damage distribution and intensity in regions of the facade. J Build Pathol Rehabil 1:3

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Pereira C, Brito J, Silvestre JD (2020) Harmonising correlation matrices within a global building expert knowledge-based inspection system. Constr Build Mater. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2020.121655

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Flores-Colen I, Brito J, Freitas VP, Hawreen A (2020) Reliability for in-situ diagnosis in external wall renders. Constr Build Mater. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2020.119079

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Bauer E, Pavón E, Oliveira E, Pereira CHF (2016) Facades inspection with infrared thermography: cracks evaluation. J Build Pathol Rehabil 1:2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    BRITISH STANDARD INSTITUTION (2012) BS ISO 15686–2 buildings and constructed assets—service life planning. Part 2: service life prediction procedures. British Standard Institution, London, United Kingdom

  22. 22.

    Mesquita EFT (2017) Structural characterzation and monitoring of heritage constructions. Phd Thesis. Faculty of Engineering of University of Porto

  23. 23.

    Masciotta MG, Ramos LF, Lourenço PB (2017) The importance of structural monitoring as a diagnosis and control tool in the restoration process of heritage structures: a case study in Portugal. J Cultural Herit 27:36–47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.culher.2017.04.003

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Sánchez-Aparicio LJ, Masciotta MG, García-Alvarez J, Ramos LF, Oliveira DV, Martín-Jiménez JA, González-Aguilera D, Monteiro P (2020) Web-GIS approach to preventive conservation of heritage buildings. Autom Constr. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autcon.2020.103304

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Akinosho TD, Oyedele LO, Bilal M, Ajayi AO, Delgado MD, Akinade OO, Ahmed AA (2020) Deep learning in the construction industry: a review of present status and future innovations. J Build Eng. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobe.2020.101827

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Cavalcante L, Araújo E, Silva M, Medeiros JL, Oliveira V, Viera M, Monteiro A, Mesquita E (2020) Non-destructive monitoring based on corrosion potential. J Build Pathol Rehabil. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41024-020-0076-2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Lourenço PB (2014) The ICOMOS methodology for conservation of cultural heritage buildings: concepts, research and application to case studies. In: Proceedings of the international conference on preservation, maintenance and rehabilitation of historical buildings and structures—REHAB, chapter 6: inspection and monitoring of historical sites, buildings and structures. Green Lines Institutes, Tomar, Portugal, pp 945–954. https://doi.org/10.14575/gl/rehab2014/095

  28. 28.

    INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL ON MONUMENTS AND SITES - INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE FOR ANALYSIS AND RESTORATION OF STRUCTURES OF ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE (2003) Icomos Charter—principles for the analysis, conservation and structural restoration of architectural heritage. Icomos, Zimbabwe

    Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Lima BB, Zanoni VAG (2019) Visual documentation of the state of conservation by means of UAV: the case of marble cladding systems on the façades of the Brazilian Palace of Congress. Structural studies, repairs and maintenance of heritage architecture XVI. WIT Press, Southampton, pp 139–150. https://doi.org/10.2495/STR190121

    Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL ON MONUMENTS AND SITES - INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE FOR STONE (2010) Illustrated glossary on stone deteriorarion patterns. Icomos, Paris

    Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    CONSIGLIO NAZIONALE DELLE RICERCHE - CENTRALE PER IL RESTAURO (1990) NORMAL 1/88: Alterazione macroscopiche dei materiali lapidei: lessico. CNR-ICR, Roma

    Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    ENTE ITALIANO DI NORMAZIONE (2006) UNI 11182—Materiali lapidei naturali ed artificiali—descrizione della forma di alterazione—termini e definizioni. UNI, Milano

    Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Carvalho GB (2018) Proposta para representação gráfica de mapas de danos em fachadas modernistas de concreto armado aparente. Dissertation, Universidade de Brasília

  34. 34.

    BRITISH STANDARD INSTITUTION (2018) BS EN IEC 60812—failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA and FMECA). British Standard Institution, London

    Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Stamatis DH (2003) Failure mode and effect analysis: FMEA from theory to execution, 2nd edn. ASQ Quality Press, Milwaukee

    Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Zanoni VAG, Buson M (2015) Matriz de criticidade na avaliação da qualidade construtiva do Programa Minha Casa Minha Vida. In: XIII Congresso Latino-Americano de Patologia da Construção, XV Congresso de Controlo da Qualidade na Construção, Congresso Luso-Africano da Construção. Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa

  37. 37.

    BRITISH STANDARD INSTITUTION (2011) BS ISO 15686–1 buildings and constructed assets—service life planning—part 1: general principles and framework. British Standard Institution, London

    Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS (2014) ASCE/SEI 30–14—Guideline for condition assessment of the building envelope. ASCE, Virginia

    Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    ASSOCIAÇÃO BRASILEIRA DE NORMAS TÉCNICAS (2012) ABNT NBR 5674—Manutenção de edificações—Requisitos para o sistema de gestão de manutenção. ABNT, Rio de Janeiro

    Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    ASSOCIAÇÃO BRASILEIRA DE NORMAS TÉCNICAS (2013) ABNT NBR 15575-1—Edificações Habitacionais—Desempenho—Parte 1: Requisitos gerais. ABNT, Rio de Janeiro

    Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    ASSOCIAÇÃO BRASILEIRA DE NORMAS TÉCNICAS (2013) ABNT NBR 15575–2—Edificações Habitacionais—Desempenho—Parte 2: Requisitos para os sistemas estruturais. ABNT, Rio de Janeiro

    Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    ASSOCIAÇÃO BRASILEIRA DE NORMAS TÉCNICAS (2013) ABNT NBR 15575–4—Edificações Habitacionais—Desempenho. Parte 4: Sistemas de vedações verticais internas e externas—SVVIE. ABNT, Rio de Janeiro

    Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    INSTITUTO BRASILEIRO DE AVALIAÇÕES E PERÍCIAS DE ENGENHARIA (2011) Norma de inspeção predial. IBAPE/SP, São Paulo

    Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Silva AFF, Brito J, Gaspar P (2011) Modelo de previsão da vida útil de revestimentos de pedra natural de paredes. Revista Engenharia Civil 41:35–50

    Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Silva MNB (2014) Avaliação quantitativa da degradação em vida útil de revestimentos de fachada—aplicação ao caso de Brasília/DF. Phd Thesis, Universidade de Brasília

  46. 46.

    Emídio F, Brito J, Gaspar PL, Silva A (2014) Application of the factor method to the estimation of the service life of natural stone cladding. Constr Build Mater. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.05.073

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Zanoni VAG (2015) Influência dos agentes climáticos de degradação no comportamento higrotérmico de fachadas em Brasília. Phd Thesis, Universidade de Brasília

  48. 48.

    Mousavi SH, Silva A, Brito J, Ekhlassi A, Hosseini SB (2019) Influence of design on the service life of indirectly fastened natural stone cladding. J Perform Constr Facil. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)CF.1943-5509.0001277

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    Aires-Barros L (1991) Alteração e alterabildiade de rochas. Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Lisboa

    Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    Frascá MHBO (2003) Estudos experimentais de alteração acelerada em rochas graníticas para revestimento. Phd Thesis, Universidade de São Paulo

  51. 51.

    Frascá MHBO (2014) Tipos de rochas ornamentais e características tecnológicas. Tecnologia das rochas ornamentais: pesquisa, lavra e beneficiamento. CETEM, Rio de Janeiro, pp 43–97

    Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    Haas YC, Ribeiro RTM (2012) Tecnologia da conservação de pedras: uma proposta de metodologia. In: CICOP—XI Congresso internacional de rehabilitación del patrimonio arquitectónico y edificación—módulo 2, Cascais

  53. 53.

    Del Lama EA (2016) Estudos de conservação em pedra. Phd Thesis, Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho

  54. 54.

    Oliveira MM (2011) Tecnologia da Conservação e da Restauração, 4th edn. EDUFBA, Salvador

    Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    Oliveira MM (2016) Sobre Pedra. Arquitetura e Restauro Geonomos 24(2):21–29

    Google Scholar 

  56. 56.

    Lima BB, Leite TM, Zanoni VAG (2017) The preservation of modern architecture in Brasília—a study of stress zones. In: PROHITEC 17—3rd International conference on protection of historical constructions, Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisboa

Download references

Funding

Not applicable.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

Not applicable.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Bruna Barbosa de Lima.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

Not applicable.

Availability of data and material (data transparency)

Not applicable.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

de Lima, B.B., Zanoni, V.A.G. Brazilian Palace of Congress: a Study of the Marble Cladding System State of Conservation. J Build Rehabil 6, 11 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s41024-021-00105-6

Download citation

Keywords

  • Modern architecture
  • Marble cladding systems
  • State of conservation
  • Brazilian palace of congress