Exclusion and rehabilitation: how multilateral development banks address corrupt behaviour
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This article considers administrative sanctions used by multilateral development banks in response to corruption in development projects. The paper covers the backgrounds, purposes, and current practices of these similar but non-identical systems, and searches for lessons to be learned as the MDBs continue to tackle the problem of corruption through sanctions of private companies and individuals. A particular focus is the institutions’ balanced approach to risk management that uses both exclusion and tools of rehabilitation with respect to culpable companies and individuals.
KeywordsAnti-corruption Administrative sanctions Rehabilitation Exclusion Debarment Restitution Multilateral development banks African Development Bank Group Asian Development Bank European Bank for Reconstruction and Development Inter-American Development Bank Group World Bank Group
The author would like to thank Gerry Ferguson, Distinguished Professor at the University of Victoria Faculty of Law and a member of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime Experts Group on Anti-Corruption Academic Materials, for his valuable input and encouragement, and the editorial staff at the Osgoode Hall Law School of York University and the Jindal Global Law Review for their work and contributions. The observations, interpretations, and conclusions expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the World Bank Group, its Board of Directors, or the governments they represent.