International Journal of Civil Engineering

, Volume 15, Issue 3, pp 391–400 | Cite as

Static Analysis of Flexible Pavements over Expansive Soils

  • Adel Djellali
  • Abdelkader Houam
  • Behrooz Saghafi
  • Ali Hamdane
  • Zied Benghazi
Research Paper


To study and predict the behavior of flexible pavement over expansive soils, a pavement structure was subjected to different laboratory and fieldwork experiments. The existing pavement was replaced and designed based on California Bearing Ratio (CBR) method, with a new one, and subjected to the traffic from various number of load cycles from 12.1 up to 155.52 kcycles of standard axle load (80 kN) through dual wheel assembly over a 6-month period. As the preliminary step, the deflection measurements were taken at the asphalt surface layer, using a Total station at different distances as function of truckload applications. The numerical analysis is carried out with the Finite Element software package PLAXIS version 2012. In the new model, the calculation of the transferred pressure to the pavement through contact area of tires is 3D it was turned into a 2D problem, and the pavement was subjected to a static loading using a ratio factor of dynamic additional charge. The materials’ behavior was simulated with nonlinear models: Mohr–Coulomb (MC) for pavement layers and soft-soil model (SSM) for the expansive subgrade, in saturated drained and undrained conditions. The results indicate that displacements under static loading in saturated drained conditions and when non-linear materials are present are the closest to field measured deflections.


Flexible pavements Expansive subgrades Soil behavior Finite element method PLAXIS 



The authors gratefully acknowledge the support given by the team of Civil Engineering and Mining Laboratories of Larbi Tebessi University for their support and help in completing this work.

Supplementary material

40999_2016_58_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (500 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 500 kb)
40999_2016_58_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (536 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (PDF 536 kb)


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Copyright information

© Iran University of Science and Technology 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adel Djellali
    • 1
  • Abdelkader Houam
    • 2
  • Behrooz Saghafi
    • 3
  • Ali Hamdane
    • 4
  • Zied Benghazi
    • 4
  1. 1.Civil Engineering DepartmentLarbi Tebessi UniversityTebessaAlgeria
  2. 2.Mining Laboratory, Civil Engineering DepartmentLarbi Tebessi UniversityTebessaAlgeria
  3. 3.School of EngineeringThe University of LiverpoolLiverpoolUK
  4. 4.Mining Engineering DepartmentLarbi Tebessi UniversityTebessaAlgeria

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