Photovoltaic and Electric Vehicle-to-Grid Strategies for Peak Load Shifting in Low Voltage Distribution System Under Time of Use Grid Pricing

Abstract

Contemplating the alarming increase in emission of greenhouse gases and global energy demand, electric vehicles (EVs) powered by both the grid and solar photovoltaic (PV) systems pose an effective solution. PV arrays reduce the dependence of EVs on the utility grid for charging. As EVs store energy, they can apportion power to fulfill load demands during peak hours. This paper evaluates the impacts of integrating EVs and PV arrays in distribution networks by evaluating their effects in a given system, during a pre-characterized period with controlled charging and discharging strategy. It simulates EVs’ movement in a geographic region by considering a case study-based EV travelling pattern. Adaptive modified multi-objective whale optimization algorithm (A-MWOA) is utilized not exclusively to limit the effect of EV charging/releasing on the network yet, in addition, to reduce the expenses borne by both the EV proprietor and the service provider. It estimates the maximum number of EVs and PV arrays that can be securely incorporated in a given system and the progressions incited by EVs in the load diagrams, voltage profiles, line loading and energy losses are analyzed. The results validate the proposed model from the perspective of practical applications.

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Correspondence to Chinmay Kumar Nayak.

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Kasturi, K., Nayak, C.K. & Nayak, M.R. Photovoltaic and Electric Vehicle-to-Grid Strategies for Peak Load Shifting in Low Voltage Distribution System Under Time of Use Grid Pricing. Iran J Sci Technol Trans Electr Eng (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40998-020-00405-6

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Keywords

  • Electric vehicles
  • Solar photovoltaic systems
  • Vehicle-to-grid technology
  • Time of use pricing
  • Techno-economic analysis
  • Adaptive modified multi-objective whale optimization algorithm (a-MWOA)