Thermal and Rheological Properties of Industrial Mineral Gear Oil and Paraffinic Oil/CNTs Nanolubricants

  • Waleed Khalil
  • Alaa Mohamed
  • Mohamed Bayoumi
  • T. A. Osman
Research Paper

Abstract

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are used as a nanoadditive due to their unique properties and for improving the lubricant’s properties. In this research, the effect of CNTs in different concentrations (0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2 wt%) on kinematic viscosity, pour point, flash point and thermal conductivity coefficient as four quality parameters which are effective in the functionality of oil is evaluated and compared against the standard Mobil gear 627 and paraffinic mineral oils. The samples were tested according to ASTM D-445, ASTM D-97 and ASTM D-92 standards, respectively. The results indicated that the thermal conductivity, flash point, pour point and kinematic viscosity of nanolubricants with low concentration of CNTs improved with respect to the base oil. Dispersion of CNTs as additive has improved the lubricant properties and operational characteristics of Mobil gear 627 and paraffinic mineral oils.

Keywords

Carbon nanotubes Kinematic viscosity Pour point Flash point Thermal conductivity coefficient Mobil gear 627 Paraffinic mineral oils 

References

  1. Alawi OA, Sidik NAC, Beriache M (2015) Applications of nanorefrigerant and nanolubricants in refrigeration, air-conditioning and heat pump systems: a review. Int Commun Heat Mass Transf 68:91–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chen L, Xie H, Yu W, Li Y (2011) Rheological behaviors of nanofluids containing multi-walled carbon nanotube. J Dispers Sci Technol 32:550–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Choi Y, Lee C, Hwang Y, Park M, Lee J, Choi C, Jung M (2009) Tribological behavior of copper nanoparticles as additives in oil. Curr Appl Phys 9:124–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chou CC, Lee SH (2008) Rheological behavior and tribological performance of a nanodiamond-dispersed lubricant. J Mater Process Technol 201:542–547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Colangelo G, Favale E, de Risi A, Laforgia D (2012) Results of experimental investigations on the heat conductivity of nanofluids based on diathermic oil for high temperature applications. Appl Energy 97:828–833CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Colangelo G, Favale E, Miglietta P et al (2016) Thermal conductivity, viscosity and stability of Al2O3-diathermic oil nanofluids for solar energy systems. Energy 95:124–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Esfe MH, Saedodin S, Mahian O et al (2014) Thermal conductivity of Al2O3/water nanofluids. J Therm Anal Calorim 117(2):675–681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ettefaghi E, Ahmadi H, Rashidi A, Nouralishahi A, Mohtasebi SS (2013) Preparation and thermal properties of oil-based nanofluid from multi-walled carbon nanotubes and engine oil as nano-lubricant. Heat Mass Transf 46:142–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ferguson CR, Kirkpatrick AT (2001) Internal combustion engines: applied thermosciences, 2nd edn. Wiley, New York, pp 134–163Google Scholar
  10. Hamdy M, Mohamed A, Bayoumi M, Osman TA (2016) Experimental investigations of Rheological behaviour and thermal conductivity of nanogrease. Ind Lubr Tribol 69(4):1Google Scholar
  11. Harish S, Ishikawa K, Einarsson E, Aikawa S, Chiashi S, Shiomi J, Maruyama S (2012) Enhanced thermal conductivity of ethylene glycol with single-walled carbon nanotube inclusions. Int J Heat Mass Transf 55:3885–3890CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hwang Y, Lee C, Choi Y, Cheong S, Kim D, Lee K, Lee J, Kim SH (2011) Effect of the size and morphology of particles dispersed in nano-oil on friction performance between rotating discs. J Mech Sci Technol 25(11):2853–2857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ji X, Chen Y, Zhao G, Wang X, Liu W (2011) Tribological properties of CaCO3 nanoparticles as an additive in lithium grease. Tribol Lett 41:113–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kamel BM, Mohamed A, El Sherbiny M, Abed KA (2016a) Tribological behaviour of calcium grease containing carbon nanotubes additives. Ind Lubr Tribol 68(6):723–728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kamel BM, Mohamed A, El Sherbiny M, Abed KA (2016b) Rheology and thermal conductivity of calcium grease containing multi-walled carbon nanotube. Fuller Nanotubes Carbon Nanostruct 24(4):260–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kamel BM, Mohamed A, El Sherbiny M, Abed KA, Abd-Rabou M (2017) Tribological properties of graphene nanosheets as an additive in calcium grease. J Dispers Sci Technol 38(10):1495–1500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Khalil W, Mohamed A, Bayoumi M, Osman TA (2016) Tribological properties of dispersed carbon nanotubes in lubricant. Fuller Nanotubes Carbon Nanostruct 24(7):479–485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kole M, Dey TK (2010) Thermal conductivity and viscosity of Al2O3 nanofluid based on car engine coolant. J Phys D Appl Phys 43:315501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kole M, Dey TK (2011) Effect of aggregation on the viscosity of copper oxide gear oil nanofluids. Int J Thermal Sci 50:1741–1747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ku BC, Han YC, Lee JE, Lee JK, Park SH, Hwang YJ (2010) Tribological effects of fullerene (C60) nanoparticles added in mineral lubricants according to its viscosity. Int J Precis Eng Manuf 11(4):607–611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Li X, Zou C, Wang T, Lei X (2015a) Rheological behavior of ethylene glycol-based SiC nanofluids. Int J Heat Mass Transf 84:925–930CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Li X, Zou C, Lei X et al (2015b) Stability and enhanced thermal conductivity of ethylene glycol-based SiC nanofluids. Int J Heat Mass Transf 89:613–619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Li X, Zou C, Zhou L, Qi A (2016) Experimental study on the thermo-physical properties of diathermic oil based SiC nanofluids for high temperature applications. Int J Heat Mass Transf 97:631–637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Liu L, Fang Z, Gu A, Guo Z (2011) Lubrication effect of the paraffin oil filled with functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes for bismaleimide resin. Tribol Lett 42:59–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ma S, Zheng S, Cao D, Guo H (2010) Anti-wear and friction performance of ZrO2 nanoparticles as lubricant additive. Particuology 8:468–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mingwu S, Jianbin L, Shizhu W, Junbin Y (2001) Nano-tribological properties and mechanisms of the liquid crystal as an additive. Chin Sci Bull 46(14):1227–1232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mohamed A, Osman TA, Khattab A, Zaki M (2013a) Influence of nano grease composite on rheological behaviour. Int J Eng Res Appl 3(6):1126–1131Google Scholar
  28. Mohamed A, Osman TA, Khattab A, Zaki M (2013b) Rheological behavior of carbon nanotubes as an additive on lithium grease. J Nanotechnol 2013:1–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mohamed A, Osman TA, Khattab A, Zaki M (2015) Tribological behavior of carbon nanotubes as an additive on lithium grease. J Tribol 137(1):011801–011805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mohamed A, El-Sayed R, Osman TA, Toprak MS, Muhammed M, Uheida A (2016a) Composite nanofibers for highly efficient photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes from contaminated water. Environ Res 145:18–25. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2015.09.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mohamed A, Osman TA, Toprak MS, Muhammed M, Yilmaz E, Uheida A (2016b) Visible light photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) by surface modified CNT/Titanium dioxide composites nanofibers. J Mol Catal A Chem 424:45–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Omer OA, Sidik NAC, Kherbeet AS (2016) The effects of nanolubricants on boiling and two phase flow phenomena: a review. Int Commun Heat Mass Transf 75:197–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Peng Y, Hu Y, Wang H (2007) Tribological behaviors of surfactant-functionalized carbon nanotubes as lubricant additive in water. Tribol Lett 25(3):247–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rasheed AK, Khalid M, Rashmi W, Gupta TCSM, Chan A (2016) Graphene based nanofluids and nanolubricants—review of recent developments. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 63:346–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Saeedinia M, Akhavan-Behabadi MA, Razi P (2012) Thermal and rheological characteristics of CuO—base oil nanofluid flow inside a circular tube. Int Commun Heat Mass Transf 39:152–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sarhan DA, Sayuti M, Hamdi M (2012) Reduction of power and lubricant oil consumption in milling process using a new SiO2 nanolubrication system. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 63:505–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sarma PK, Srinivas V, Rao V, Kumar A (2011) Experimental study and analysis of lubricants dispersed with nano Cu and TiO2 in a four-stroke two wheeler. Nanoscale Res Lett 6:233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Utomo AT, Poth H, Robbins PT et al (2012) Experimental and theoretical studies of thermal conductivity, viscosity and heat transfer coefficient of titania and alumina nanofluids. Int J Heat Mass Transf 55(25–26):7772–7781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Vakili-Nezhaad GR, Dorany A (2009) Investigation of the effect of multiwalled carbon nanotubes on the viscosity index of lube oil cuts. Chem Eng Commun 196(9):997–1007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Vasheghani MH, Marzbanrad E, Zamani C, Aminy M, Raissi B, Ebadzadeh T, Barzegar-Bafrooei H (2011) Effect of Al2O3 phases on the enhancement of thermal conductivity and viscosity of nanofluids in engine oil. Heat Mass Transf 47:1401–1405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wang B, Wang X, Lou W, Hao J (2012) Thermal conductivity and rheological properties of graphite/oil nanofluids. Colloids Surf A 414:125–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wei B, Zou C, Yuan X, Li X (2017) Thermo-physical property evaluation of diathermic oil based hybrid nanofluids for heat transfer applications. Int J Heat Mass Transf 107:281–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wu Y, Tsuia W, Liub T (2007) Experimental analysis of tribological properties of lubricating oils with nanoparticle additives. Wear 262:819–825CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Xie H, Chen L, Wu Q (2008) Measurements of the viscosity of suspensions (nanofluids) containing nanosized Al2O3 particles. High Temp High Press 37:127–135Google Scholar
  45. Yang Y, Grulke EA, Zhang Z, Wu G (2006) Thermal and rheological properties of carbon nanotube-in-oil dispersions. J Appl Phys 99:4307Google Scholar
  46. Zhou S-Q, Ni R, Funfschilling D (2010) Effects of shear rate and temperature on viscosity of alumina polyalphaolefins nanofluids. J Appl Phys 107(5):054317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Żyła G (2016) Thermophysical properties of ethylene glycol based yttrium aluminum garnet (Y3Al5O12-EG) nanofluids. Int J Heat Mass Transf 92:751–756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Żyła G, Fal J, Traciak J, Gizowska M, Perkowski K (2016) Huge thermal conductivity enhancement in boron nitride—ethylene glycol nanofluids. Mater Chem Phys 180:250–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Shiraz University 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Waleed Khalil
    • 1
  • Alaa Mohamed
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mohamed Bayoumi
    • 3
  • T. A. Osman
    • 4
  1. 1.Production Engineering and Printing Technology DepartmentAkhbar El Yom AcademyGizaEgypt
  2. 2.Egypt Nanotechnology Center, EGNCCairo UniversityGizaEgypt
  3. 3.Mechanical Engineering DepartmentAl-Azhar UniversityCairoEgypt
  4. 4.Mechanical Design and Production Engineering DepartmentCairo UniversityGizaEgypt

Personalised recommendations