Energy, Ecology and Environment

, Volume 3, Issue 4, pp 216–228 | Cite as

Ionic-liquid-mediated pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification of Prosopis sp. biomass in a consolidated bioprocess for potential bioethanol fuel production

  • Surbhi Vaid
  • Tarun Mishra
  • Bijender Kumar Bajaj
Original Article


The efficacy of ionic liquid (IL)-based pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass (LB) can be enhanced by simultaneous application of surfactants/salts/deep eutectic solvent (DES) systems which may realize more effectual biorefining of LB to biofuels or other commodities. However, due to inhibitory nature of IL, IL-stable saccharification enzymes (cellulase/xylanase) are desired for enzymatic hydrolysis of IL-pretreated biomass. Bacillus spp. are considered as the super microbial factories for production of commercially important robust enzymes. The current study presents the enhanced production (1.438-fold) of an IL-stable cellulase from a newly isolated IL-tolerant Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SV29 by statistical optimization using agroindustrial residues as carbon (groundnut shell) and nitrogen source (mustard cake). The process variables such as groundnut shell and mustard cake, incubation time, and inoculum size were optimized. The enzyme preparation (cellulase/xylanase) was evaluated for its saccharification potential of Prosopis sp. (twigs/pods) biomass that was pretreated either with IL (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium methanesulfonate, EMIMS) standalone or IL along with surfactants/salts/DES systems in a consolidated bioprocess (CBP), i.e., one pot consolidated bioprocess, due to several technoeconomic advantages of the latter. No reported studies are available on bioconversion of Prosopis sp. biomass using IL or CBP. Sugar yield was enhanced when IL was used along with either DES choline chloride glycerol (54.4%) or with FeSO4 (51%). Thus, the pretreatment efficacy of EMIMS is substantially enhanced when used in combination with choline chloride glycerol or FeSO4 for getting increased sugar yield upon enzymatic hydrolysis of Prosopis sp. biomass with IL-stable enzymes.


Ionic-liquid-stable cellulase Prosopis sp. Pretreatment Surfactant One pot consolidated bioprocess 



Dr. Bijender Kumar (Bajaj) gratefully acknowledges the Institute of Advanced Study, Durham University, UK, for providing COFUND International Senior Research Fellowship for “Research Stay” at Department of Biosciences, Durham University, Durham, UK; Department of Science and Technology (Govt. of India) is acknowledged for financial support (Research Project Ref. SR/SO/BB-66/2007), and Commonwealth Scholarship Commission, UK, for providing Commonwealth Fellowship (INCF-2013-45) for “Research Stay” at Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences (IBERS), Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth, UK. Authors thank the Director, School of Biotechnology, University of Jammu, Jammu, for necessary laboratory facilities.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Joint Center on Global Change and Earth System Science of the University of Maryland and Beijing Normal University and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Surbhi Vaid
    • 1
  • Tarun Mishra
    • 1
  • Bijender Kumar Bajaj
    • 1
  1. 1.School of BiotechnologyUniversity of JammuJammuIndia

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