Protein oxidation in the fish Danio rerio (Cyprinidae) fed with single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes
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The increase in the production of carbon nanotubes (CNT) arises potential scenarios of exposure to these nanomaterials for several organisms including aquatic species. Experiments were conducted to determine the toxicity of single-walled (SWCNT) and multi-walled (MWCNT) carbon nanotubes to the fish Danio rerio (Cyprinidae) exposed to these CNT via diet (500 mg/kg) during 28 days. Induction of oxidative stress by CNT was evaluated through protein carbonyl groups (immunohistochemistry). Higher levels of carbonyl groups were registered in several organs (liver, brain, pancreas and muscle) of fish exposed to SWCNT and MWCNT. Overall, data indicate that CNT administered through diet can in fact induce toxicological responses in aquatic organisms as fish. The measurement of irreversible protein oxidative damage through immunohistochemistry seems to be a valuable tool for nanotoxicology.
KeywordsNanotoxicology Protein carbonyl groups Nanotechnology Oxidative damage Protein oxidation
André L. da R. Seixas received a graduate fellowship from Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Nanomateriais de Carbono (MCTI/CNPq). Marlize Ferreira-Cravo received a post doc fellowship from FAPERGS/CAPES. Ana C. Kalb received a post doc fellowship from CAPES. José M. Monserrat is a research fellow from CNPq (Process No. 307880/2013-3). The authors would like to thank the laboratory technicians working at the Instituto de Ciências Biológicas (ICB) FURG and at the Laboratório de Materiais Cerâmicos (LACER), Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS) Porto Alegre, RS and the undergraduate students Lennon Flores Brongar and Astaruth Nayara Vicente. The logistic and material support from the Nanotoxicology Network (MCTI/CNPq, Proc. 552131/2011-3) was essential for the execution of present study. The support from CNPq (Universal Project No. 479053/2012-0) given to José M. Monserrat is also acknowledged.
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