Advertisement

Journal of Dynamic Behavior of Materials

, Volume 4, Issue 3, pp 336–358 | Cite as

Measurement of Sub-micron Deformations and Stresses at Microsecond Intervals in Laterally Impacted Composite Plates Using Digital Gradient Sensing

  • C. Miao
  • H. V. Tippur
Article
  • 100 Downloads

Abstract

Visualization and quantification of surface topography and stresses from measured slope data is of considerable importance to study many engineering problems including response of structural plates to stress wave loading. In this work, a full-field optical technique called Digital Gradient Sensing (DGS) is implemented in the reflection-mode to quantify time-resolved surface slopes in composite plates at microsecond intervals as they are impact loaded. The method being capable of determining two orthogonal surface slopes by measuring angular deflections of light rays, as small as a few micro-radians, surface topography can be quantified using a Higher-order Finite-difference-based Least-squares Integration (HFLI). Numerical differentiation of surface slopes, on the other hand, provides all three curvatures enabling estimation of stresses. Carbon fiber reinforced composite plates of different layups are subjected to dynamic impact loading using a Hopkinson pressure bar. Ultrahigh-speed digital photography is used to record deformations using DGS. The out-of-plane deformations are obtained by post-processing data from DGS at each time instant using HFLI whereas stresses are estimated by evaluating instantaneous curvatures obtained by differentiating measured slopes.

Keywords

Composite plates Impact loading Vision-based measurements Surface slopes Deflections and stresses Ultrahigh-speed photography 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Authors thank the financial and equipment support from Grants (U.S. Army) W31P4Q-14-C-0049, ARMY-W911NF-16-1-0093 and W911NF-15-1-0357 (DURIP). The assistance of Dr. Dongyeon Lee, Toray Composite Materials America, Inc. for supplying CFRP sheets studied in this work is gratefully acknowledged.

Supplementary material

Supplementary material 1 (MP4 407 KB)

Supplementary material 2 (MP4 724 KB)

Supplementary material 3 (MP4 686 KB)

References

  1. 1.
    Thomassin J-M, Jerome C, Pardoen T, Bailly C, Huynen I, Detrembleur C (2013) Polymer/carbon based composites as electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding materials. Mater Sci Eng R 74:211–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Soutis C (2005) Fibre reinforced composites in aircraft construction. Prog Aerosp Sci 41:143–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Williams G, Trask R, Bond I (2007) A self-healing carbon fibre reinforced polymer for aerospace applications. Compos A 38:1525–1532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lee SH, Waas AM (1999) Compressive response and failure of fiber reinforced unidirectional composites. Int J Fract 100:275–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sanchez-Saez S, Barbero E, Zaera R, Navarro C (2005) Compression after impact of thin composite laminates. Compos Sci Technol 65:1911–1919CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Walker L, Sohn M-S, Xiao-Zhi H (2002) Improving impact resistance of carbon-fibre composites through interlaminar reinforcement. Compos A 33:893–902CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Grediac M (2004) The use of full-field measurement methods in composite material characterization: interest and limitations. Compos A 35:751–761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Quinn JP, McIlhagger AT, McIlhagger R (2008) Examination of the failure of 3D woven composites. Compos A 39:273–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bosia F, Botsis J, Facchini M, Philippe G (2002) “Deformation characteristics of composite laminates—part I: speckle interferometry and embedded Bragg grating sensor measurements”. Compos Sci Technol 62:41–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tippur HV, Krishnaswamy S, Rosakis AJ (1991) Optical mapping of crack tip deformations using the methods of transmission and reflection coherent gradient sensing: a study of crack tip K-dominance. Int J Fract 52:91–117Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lee H, Rosakis AJ, Freund LB (2001) Full-field optical measurement of curvatures in ultra-thin-film-substrate systems in the range of geometrically nonlinear deformations. J Appl Phys 89:6116–6129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tippur HV (2004) Simultaneous and real-time measurement of slpoe and curvature fringes in thin structures using shearing interferometry. Opt Eng 43:3014–3020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ritter R (1982) Reflection moire methods for plate bending studies. Opt Eng 21:663–671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cairns DS, Minguet PJ, Abdallah MG (1994) Theoretical and experimental response of composite laminates with delaminations loaded in compression. Compos Struct 24:431–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Karthikeyan K, Russell BP, Fleck NA, Wadley HNG, Deshpande VS (2013) The effect of shear strength on the ballistic response of laminated composite plates. Eur J Mech A 42:35–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Koerber H, Xavier J, Camanho PP (2010) High strain rate characterisation of unidirectional carbon-epoxy IM7-8552 in transverse compression and in-plane shear using digital image correlation. Mech Mater 42:1004–1019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Yamada M, Tanabe Y, Yoshimura A, Ogasawara T (2011) Three-dimensional measurement of CFRP deformation during high-speed impact loading. Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res A 646:219–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pankow M, Justusson B, Waas AM (2010) Three-dimensional digital image correlation technique using single high-speed camera for measuring large out-of-plane displacements at high framing rates. Appl Opt 49:3418–3427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yu L, Pan B (2016) Single-camera stereo-digital image correlation with a four-mirror adapter: optimized design and validation. Opt Lasers Eng 87:120–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pan B, Yu L, Yang Y, Song W, Guo L (2016) Full-field transient 3D deformation measurement of 3D braided composite panels during ballistic impact using single-camera high-speed stereo-digital image correlation. Compos Struct 157:25–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Periasamy C, Tippur HV (2012) Full-field digital gradient sensing method for evaluating stress gradients in transparent solids. Appl Opt 51(12):2088–2097CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Periasamy C, Tippur HV (2013) Measurement of orthogonal stress gradients due to impact load on a transparent sheet using digital gradient sensing method. Exp Mech 53:97–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Periasamy C, Tippur HV (2013) A full-field reflection-mode digital gradient sensing method for measuring orthogonal slopes and curvatures of thin structures. Meas Sci Technol 24:025202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jain AS, Tippur HV (2016) Extension of reflection-mode digital gradient sensing method for visualizing and quantifying transient deformations and damage in solids. Opt Laser Eng 77:162–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Miao C, Sundaram BM, Huang L, Tippur HV (2016) Surface profile and stress field evaluation using digital gradient sensing method. Meas Sci Technol 27:095203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Tippur HV (2006) Optical techniques in dynamic fracture mechanics. In: Shukla A (ed) Dynamic fracture mechanics. World Scientific Publications, SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Southwell WH (1980) Wave-front estimation from wave-front slope measurements. J Opt Soc Am 70:998–1006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Huang L, Idir M, Zuo C, Kaznatcheev K, Zhou L, Asundi A (2015) Comparison of two-dimensional integration methods for shape reconstruction from gradient data. Opt Laser Eng 64:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Li G, Li Y, Liu K, Ma X, Wang H (2013) Improving wave front reconstruction accuracy by using integration equations with higher-order truncation errors in the Southwell geometry. J Opt Soc Am A 2013:1448–1459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bauchau OA, Craig JI (2009) Kirchhoff plate theory. In: Bauchau OA, Craig JI (eds) Structural analysis. Solid mechanics and its applications. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 819–914Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bedsole R, Tippur HV (2013) Dynamic Fracture characterization of small specimens: a study of loading rate effects on acrylic and acrylic bone cement. J Eng Mater Technol 135:031001–031010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Tran T, Simkins D, Lim SH, Kelly D, Pearce G, Prusty BG, Gosse J, Christensen S (2012) Application of a scalar strain-based damage onset theory to the failure of a complex composite specimen. In: 28th Congress of the International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences, Brisbane, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mathews JH, Fink KK (2004) Numerical methods using Matlab, 4th edn. Prentice-Hall Inc, Upper Saddle RiverGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Society for Experimental Mechanics, Inc 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringAuburn UniversityAuburnUSA

Personalised recommendations