Weather-based logistic models to estimate total fumonisin levels in maize kernels at export terminals in Argentina
Maize fumonisin (FB) contamination is strongly driven by the weather conditions and crop resistance. Logistic regression techniques were used to quantify the effect of weather-based variables on total FB content in kernel samples coming from many locations of the Argentinean Pampas region (over three growing seasons), and collected immediately after arriving at export terminals. The samples were analyzed by the HPLC method and grouped according to their proximity to the available weather stations (n = 52). The highest correlations between binary and ordinal FB levels and weather variables were found in an early critical period (17 December to 15 January) where maize silking phase (Si) frequently occurs and in a late period (15 February to 2 April) around physiological maturity (PM). The best-fitted models included variables calculated around Si that would meet the requirements of infection of F. verticillioides (precipitation-induced wetness events, high humidity and warm temperatures). Around PM, the effect of the number of days with precipitation combined with lower temperatures (13.3° to 25 °C) that would slow the kernel drying process was included, increasing the FB accumulation. An integrated system for FB management in the maize value chain should use validated weather-based models as tools for estimating seasonal kernel FB contamination levels in the Pampas region, being able to improve kernel sampling efficiency at export terminals and mills.
KeywordsFusarium verticillioides Logistic regression models Mycotoxins
We wish to thank to Ana María Di Giulio from SENASA for participating in kernel sampling work at export terminals. We also thank to Susana Rojas y Alba Castro from INTA for being involved in mycotoxin analysis of kernel samples.
- Cao A, Santiago R, Ramos AJ, Souto XC, Aguín O, Malvar RA, Butrón A (2014) Critical environmental and genotypic factors for Fusarium verticillioides infection fungal growth and fumonisin contamination in maize grown in northwestern Spain. International Journal of Food Microbiology 177:63–71CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Herrera M, Conchello P, Juan T, Estopañán G, Herrera A, Ariño A (2010) Fumonisins concentrations in maize as affected by physico-chemical environmental and agronomical conditions. Maydica 55:121–126Google Scholar
- IARC Fumonisin B1: Some traditional herbal medicines some mycotoxins naphthalene and styrene (2002) In 82 monograph of the International Agency for Research of cancer on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. World Health Organization, Lyon, pp 301–306Google Scholar
- Iglesias J, Presello DA, Botta G, Lori GA, Fauguel CM (2010) Aggressiveness of Fusarium section Liseola isolates causing maize ear rot in Argentina. Journal of Plant Pathology 92:205–211Google Scholar
- Marin S, Magan N, Bellí N, Ramos AJ, Canela R, Sanchis V (1999) Two-dimensional profiles of fumonisin B1 production by Fusarium moniliforme and Fusarium proliferatum in relation to environmental factors and potential for modelling toxin formation in maize grain. International Journal of Food Microbiology 51:159–167CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Martínez M, Moschini R, Barreto D, Bodega J, Forjan H, Piatti F, Presello D, Valentinuz O (2010) Factores ambientales que afectan el contenido de fumonisina en granos de maíz. Tropical Plant Pathology 35:277–284Google Scholar
- Moschini RC, Martínez M I, Presello D, Ferraguti F, Cristos D, Rojas D. (2017) Análisis del efecto de las condiciones meteorológicas en precosecha sobre la acumulación de fumonisina en granos de maíz. Revista de Investigaciones Agropecuaria (RIA), en revisión. Marzo 2017Google Scholar
- Nielsen RL (2012) Short husks & exposed ears. Corny News Network (Purdue University Department of Agronomy) August 2012Google Scholar
- Ritchie SW, Hanway JJ (1982) How a corn plant develops Iowa State University of Science and Technology. Spetial Report 48 Cooperative Extension Service Ames IowaGoogle Scholar
- Samapundo S, Devlieghere F, De Meulenaer B, Debevere J (2005) Effect of water activity and temperature on growth and the relationship between fumonisin production and the radial growth of Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium proliferatum on corn. Journal of Food Protection 68:1054–1059CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar