Compensation Techniques for Artifacts Arising Due to Non-ideal Components in Acoustic Reflectometry System


One of the applications of the acoustic reflectometry technique is to study the layered media structures such as soil, snow. The issues of acoustic reflectometry system to study the layered media structures related with using non-ideal components are given in this paper. It has been demonstrated that there are several artifacts present in the acoustic reflectometry analysis in practice. The paper presents the signal processing algorithms to compensate the effects of non-ideal components of an acoustic reflectometry system. We have developed the signal processing techniques using inverse filtering to compensate for the artifacts due to the non-ideal nature of the transmit–receive chain. The effectiveness of the inverse filter to compensate the artifacts is also tested. The application of the acoustic reflectometry system after artifacts compensation to study the layered structures has been demonstrated using experiments conducted in a full anechoic room.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16
Fig. 17
Fig. 18
Fig. 19


  1. 1.

    Chang, H.W., Chang, T.H., Nguyen, V.T., Wang, C.W.: Determination of interfaces in soil layers by sound wave analysis with cone penetration tests. J. Mar. Sci. Technol. 18, 664–673 (2010)

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Tyagi, K.D., Kumar, A., Bahl, R., Singh, K., Srivastava, P.K.: An overview of methods for snow stratigraphy studies. In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Signal Processing and Communication, Noida, pp. 230–235 (2013)

  3. 3.

    Tyagi, K.D., Bahl, R., Kumar, A.: Comments on “Automated determination of snow water equivalent by acoustic reflectometry”. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 57(7), 5198–5203 (2019)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Kinar, N.J., Pomeroy, J.W.: Operational techniques for determining SWE by sound propagation through snow: 1. General theory. In: 65th Eastern snow conference, Vermont, USA, pp 309–323 (2008)

  5. 5.

    Tyagi, K.D., Kumar, A., Bahl, R.: Experimental measurement of acoustic properties in snow. Acoust. Phys. 63, 297–301 (2017)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

  7. 7.

    He, H., Li, J., Stoica, P.: Waveform Design for Active Sensing Systems: A Computational Approach. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8. 18 March 2016

  9. 9.

    Dimitris, G.M., Ingle, V., Stephen, M.K.: Statistical and Adaptive Signal Processing, 2nd edn. McGraw-Hill, New York (2005)

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10. 15 April 2016

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Kapil Dev Tyagi.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Tyagi, K.D., Kumar, A. & Bahl, R. Compensation Techniques for Artifacts Arising Due to Non-ideal Components in Acoustic Reflectometry System. Acoust Aust (2020).

Download citation


  • Acoustic reflectometry
  • Inverse filter
  • Layered structures