Minimizing a Wireless Passive LC-Tank Sensor to Monitor Bladder Pressure: A Simulation Study
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In this simulation study, a wireless passive LC-tank sensor system was characterized. Given the application of continuous bladder monitoring, a specific system was proposed in terms of coil geometries and electronic circuitry. Coupling coefficients were spatially mapped by simulation, as a function of both coil distance, and longitudinal and transverse translation of the sensor relative to the antenna. Further, two interrogation schemes were outlined. One was an auto-balancing bridge for computing the sensor-system impedance. In this case, the theoretical noise limit of the analogue part of the system was found by simulations. As the full system is not necessary for obtaining a pressure reading from the sensor, a simplified circuit more suited for an implantable system was deduced. For this system, both the analogue and digital parts were simulated. First, the required ADC resolution for operating the system at a given coupling was found by simulations in the noise-free case. Then, for one selected typical operational point, noise was added gradually, and through Monte-Carlo type simulations, the system performance was obtained. Combining these results, it was found that it at least is possible to operate the proposed system for distances up to 12 mm, or equivalently for coupling coefficients above 0.005. In this case a 14 bit ADC is required, and a carrier SNR of 27 dB can be tolerated.
KeywordsUrinary bladder Closed loop stimulation Pressure sensor Wireless sensor
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