Science China Materials

, Volume 61, Issue 3, pp 371–381 | Cite as

Nano-structured red phosphorus/porous carbon as a superior anode for lithium and sodium-ion batteries

  • Jiang Xu (徐江)
  • Jianning Ding (丁建宁)
  • Wenjun Zhu (朱文俊)
  • Xiaoshuang Zhou (周小双)
  • Shanhai Ge (葛善海)
  • Ningyi Yuan (袁宁一)


To enhance electrochemical performance of lithium or sodium-ion batteries (LIBs or NIBs), active materials are usually filled in porous conductive particles to produce anode composites. However, it is still challenging to achieve high performance anode composites with high specific capacity, excellent rate performance, high initial Coulombic efficiency (ICE) and long cycle life. Based on these requirements, we design and fabricate activated carbon-coated carbon nanotubes (AC@CNT) with hierarchical structures containing micro- and meso-pores. A new structure of phosphorus/carbon composite (P@AC@CNT) is prepared by confining red P in porous carbon through a vaporization-condensation-conversion method. The micro-pores are filled with P, while the meso-pores remain unoccupied, and the pore openings on the particle surface are sealed by P. Due to the unique structure of P@AC@CNT, it displays a high specific capacity of 1674 mA h g−1 at 0.2 C, ultrahigh ICE of 92.2%, excellent rate performance of 1116 mA h g−1 at 6 C, and significantly enhanced cycle stability for LIBs. The application of P@AC@CNT in NIBs is further explored. This method for the fabrication of the special composites with improved electrochemical performance can be extended to other energy storage applications.


ion battery red phosphorus/porous carbon composite nanostructure electrochemical performance 



为了提升锂离子或钠离子电池的电化学性能, 通常的做法是将活性材料填充到多孔导电颗粒中来形成复合材料. 然而, 同时实现电池的高容量、高倍率、高首次库仑效率和长循环寿命等性能仍是一项挑战. 针对这些需求, 我们设计并制备了具有分等级微中孔结构的活性炭包覆碳纳米管材料. 采用蒸发冷凝转化法制备了一种将红磷限制在碳材料孔隙中的新型磷/碳(P/C)复合材料. 在这种复合材料中,碳基的微孔被红磷充斥而介孔被保留. 材料颗粒表面的孔隙被红磷所堵塞. 由于所制备的P/C复合材料这种独特的结构, 其在锂离子电池中以0.2 C倍率充放电时展现了高达1674 mA h g−1的比容量和92.2%的首次库仑效率; 在6 C倍率充放时展现1116 mA h g−1的高容量和优秀的循环稳定性. 另外, 所制备的复合材料在钠离子电池中也展示了卓越的性能. 这种采用特殊结构来改善电化学性能的方法可推广到其他电池或储能应用中.



This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (91648109), the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFB0307001), the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, and 333 project of Jiangsu Province.

Supplementary material

40843_2017_9152_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (4.2 mb)
Nano-structured red phosphorus/porous carbon as a superior anode for lithium and sodium-ion batteries


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Copyright information

© Science China Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jiang Xu (徐江)
    • 1
  • Jianning Ding (丁建宁)
    • 1
  • Wenjun Zhu (朱文俊)
    • 1
  • Xiaoshuang Zhou (周小双)
    • 1
  • Shanhai Ge (葛善海)
    • 1
  • Ningyi Yuan (袁宁一)
    • 1
  1. 1.Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering, Jiangsu Province Cultivation Base for State Key Laboratory of Photovoltaic Science and Technology, Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Solar Cell Materials and TechnologyChangzhou UniversityChangzhouChina

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