, 4:1 | Cite as

How Grünwald unified and generalized the calculus, and how his discovery helps electrochemists

  • Keith B. Oldham
Lecture Text


2017 is the sesquicentennial of Grünwald’s demonstration that differentiation and integration can be united into a single operation which, moreover, could then be extended to unlimited orders. This text provides an overview of how such “differintegration” may be defined and implemented. The basis of its valuable application in electrochemistry is explained.


Grünwald Calculus Differentiation Integration Differintegration Algorithm Electrochemistry 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryTrent UniversityPeterboroughCanada

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