Modeling Earth Systems and Environment

, Volume 4, Issue 2, pp 841–852 | Cite as

Evaluation of groundwater quality, Peddavagu in Central Telangana (PCT), South India: an insight of controlling factors of fluoride enrichment

  • Narsimha Adimalla
  • Sathish Kumar Vasa
  • Peiyue Li
Original Article


Groundwater is one of the most valuable natural resources in Peddavagu in Central Telangana (PCT). Most of the PCT region population rely on groundwater for especially drinking purposes. For this reason a thirty-five groundwater samples were collected, analysed various physico-chemical parameters including F. The range of fluoride concentration 0.6–3.6 mg/L in Zone-I and 1–3.5 mg/L in Zone-II. pH of groundwater is from 7.1 to 8.4 and 7.3 to 8.3 in Zone-I and Zone-II respectively. Fluoride shows a significant correlation with pH, HCO3, and Na+, which may leads to enhance the fluoride content in groundwater. Insignificant relationship between F and NO3 suggests no influence of anthropogenic sources for F content in groundwater. The results of the relationship between Na++K+ versus total cations (TZ+), Ca2++Mg2+ versus HCO3+SO42− describes silicate weathering is prevails in the groundwater chemistry. The dominance of the water types Na+-HCO3> Ca2+-Mg2+-HCO3> Ca2+-Mg2+-SO42−Cl>Na+-Cl. Gibbs plot employed to differentiate the controlling mechanisms of hydrochemistry, which showed that rock water interaction is the governing process. Na+-HCO3, alkaline nature water and rock water interaction can leads to elevate fluoride content into groundwater in the study region. Thereby, most of the region people suffer with fluorosis problem, due to intake of higher fluoride content of drinking water. Therefore, the study region population may avoid such untreated water for drinking and adopt a suitable method to reduce the fluorosis problem in future.


Groundwater chemistry Fluoride enrichment Gibbs Peddavagu Telangana 



The first author (Narsimha Adimalla) gratefully acknowledges the Department of Science and Technology (DST) New Delhi, for financial assistance in the form of Young Scientists Project (Start-Up Research Grant; SR/FTP/ES-13/2013). The authors wish to thank the editor and anonymous reviewers for their valuable suggestions and comments which improved the quality of the paper.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Environmental Science and EngineeringChang’an UniversityXi’anChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Subsurface Hydrology and Ecological Effects in Arid Region of the Ministry of Education, Chang’an UniversityXi’anChina
  3. 3.Department of GeoinformaticsTelangana UniversityNizamabadIndia

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