Multiple linear modeling between soil properties, magnetic susceptibility and heavy metals in various land uses

  • Shamsollah Ayoubi
  • Mohsen Jabbari
  • Hossein Khademi
Original Article
  • 9 Downloads

Abstract

Land use and intrinsic soil properties play vital role in variability of heavy metals and magnetic susceptibility within a landscape. This study was conducted to use multiple linear regressions modeling to explore the variability of magnetic susceptibility and heavy metals within five different land uses and to find the interaction of these variables with intrinsic soil properties in Ahvaz district, Khuzestan Province, Southern Iran. Five land uses included urban area, agricultural land, steel company, Zargan Power Plant, and Ramin Power Plant. Twenty soil samples from each land use and totally one hundred samples from 0 to 5 cm topsoil were randomly collected. Some chemical and physical soil properties, magnetic susceptibility as well as concentration of some heavy metals were measured. The results showed that significant correlations were found between heavy metals and magnetic susceptibility at low frequency (χlf), showing high capability of magnetic susceptibility for prediction of heavy metals. Calcium carbonate equivalent and soil organic matter (SOM) showed negative correlation with χlf, while SOM and clay content had substantial influences on variability of heavy metals in the studied area. The results of the comparison among land uses showed that Cr, Ni were the highest in agricultural land because of the application of the sewage sludge and fertilizers, while the metals (ZN, Mn, Cu, Co and Fe) and χlf were the highest in steel company due to the industrial activities. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the combination of soil properties and magnetic susceptibility could explain 94, 62, 69, 53, 81, 77 and 57% of the variability in Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, Co and Cr, respectively.

Keywords

Soil pollution Magnetic measures Intrinsic soil properties Multiple linear modeling 

References

  1. Ajayi A, Kamson OF (1983) Determination of lead in roadside dust in Lagos city by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Environ Int 9:397–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ayoubi S, Sahrawat KL (2011) Comparing multivariate regression and artificial neural network to predict barley production from soil characteristics in northern Iran. Arch Agron Soil Sci 57:549–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ayoubi S, Jalalian A, Eghbal MK (2002) Role of pedogenesis in distribution of magnetic susceptibility in two aridisols from Isfahan, central Iran. In: Angel F, Ortiz R, Mermut AR (eds) International conference of SUMASS, Cartagena, Murcia, pp 49–50Google Scholar
  4. Ayoubi S, Ahmadi M, Abdi MR, Abbaszadeh Afshar F (2012) Relationships of Cs-137 inventory with magnetic measures of calcareous soils of hilly region in Iran. J Environ Radioact 112:45–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ayoubi S, Amiri S, Tajik S (2014) Lithogenic and anthropogenic impacts on soil surface magnetic susceptibility in an arid region of central Iran. Arch Agron Soil Sci 60:1467–1483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Biasiolia M, Barberisb R, Ajmone-Marsan F (2006) The influence of a large city on some soil properties and metals content. Sci Total Environ 356:154–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Burt R (2004) Soil Survey Laboratory Methods Manual. USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service, LincolnGoogle Scholar
  8. Caitcheon G (1993) Sediment source tracing using environmental magnetism: a new approach with examples from Australia. Hydrol Process 7:349–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chan LS, Yeung CH, Yim WWS, Or OL (1998) Correlation between magnetic susceptibility and distribution of heavy metals in contaminated sea-floor sediments of Hong Kong Harbour. Environ Geol 36:77–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chan LS, Ng SL, Davis AM, Yim WWS, Yeung CH (2001) Magnetic properties and heavy-metal contents of contaminated seabed sediments of Penny’s Bay, Hong Kong. Mar Pollut Bull 42:569–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dankoub Z, Ayoubi S, Khademi H, Lu SG (2011) Spatial distribution of magnetic properties and selected heavy metals as affected by land use in calcareous soils of the Isfahan Region, Central Iran. Pedosphere 22:33–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Davies B (1997) Heavy metal contaminated soils in an old industrial area of Wales, Great Britain: Source identification through statistical data interpretation. Water Air Soil Pollut 94:85–98Google Scholar
  13. Day PR (1965) Particle fractionation and particle-size analysis. In: Black CA (ed) Methods of soil analysis, Part 1. ASA, MadisonGoogle Scholar
  14. Doelsch E, Deroche B, Van de Kerchove V (2006) Impact of sewage sludge spreading on heavy metal speciation in tropical soils (Reunion, Indian Ocean). Chemosphere 65:286–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Facchinelli A, Sacchi E, Mallen L (2001) Multivariate statistical and GIS-based approach to identify heavy metal sources in soils. Environ Pollut 114:313–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Flanders PJ (1994) Collection, measurement and analysis of airborne magnetic particulates from pollution in the environment (invited). J Appl Phys 75:5931–5936CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Freund RJ, Littell RC (2000) SAS system for regression. SAS Institute, CaryGoogle Scholar
  18. Gallego JLR, Ordonez A, Loredo J (2002) Investigation of trace element sources from an industrialized area (Aviles, northern Spain) using multivariate statistical methods. Environ Int 27:589–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gelisli K, Aydin A (1998) Investigations of environmental pollution using magnetic susceptibility measurements. Eur J Environ Eng Geophys 3:53–61Google Scholar
  20. Hoffmann V, Knab M, Appel E (1999) Magnetic susceptibility mapping of roadside pollution. J Geochem Explor 66:313–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Holford ICR, Mattingly GEG (1975) Surface areas of calcium carbonate in soils. Geoderma 13:247–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hu XF, Yu S, Rong Y, Li XQ, Zhang GL (2007) Magnetic properties of the urban soils in Shanghai and their environmental implications. Catena 70:428–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Karimi AR, Khademi H, Ayoubi S (2013) Magnetic susceptibility and morphological characteristics of a loess–paleosol sequence in northeastern Iran. Catena 101:56–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Karimi R, Ayoubi S, Jalalian A, Sheikh- Hosseini AR, Afyuni M (2011) Relationships between magnetic susceptibility and heavy metals in urban topsails in the arid region of Isfahan, central Iran. J Appl Geophys 74:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kocher B, Wessolek G, Stoffegen H (2005) Water and heavy metal transport in roadside soils. Pedosphere 15:746–753Google Scholar
  26. Kukier U, Ishak CF, Sumner ME, Miller WP (2003) Composition and element solubility of magnetic and non-magnetic fly ash fractions. Environ Pollut 123:255–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kulkarni GE, Muley AA, Deshmukh NK, Bhalchandra PU (2018) Multivariate statistical techniques for prediction of tree and shrub species plantation using soil parameters. Model Earth Syst Environ.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40808-017-0408-7 Google Scholar
  28. Lecoanet H, Lévêque F, Ambrosi JP (2001) Magnetic properties of salt-marsh soils contaminated by iron industry emissions (southeast France). J Appl Geophys 48:67–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Li X, Poon CS, Liu PS (2001) Heavy metal contamination of urban soil and street dusts in Hong Kong. Appl Geochem 16:1361–1368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lu SG (2000) Lithological factors affecting magnetic susceptibility of subtropical soils, Zhejiang Province, China. Catena 40:359–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lu SG, Bai SQ (2006) Study on the correlation of magnetic properties and heavy metals content in urban soils of Hangzhou City, China. J Appl Geophys 60:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lu SG, Bai SQ, Cai JB, Xu C (2005) Magnetic properties and heavy metal contents of automobile emission particulates. J Zhejiang Univ Sci 6:731–735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lu SG, Bai SQ, Xue QF (2007) Magnetic properties as indicators of heavy metals pollution in urban topsoils: a case study from the city of Luoyang, China. Geophys J Int 171:568–580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lu SG, Bai SQ, Fu LX (2008) Magnetic properties as indicators of Cu and Zn contamination in soils. Pedosphere 18:479–485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Magiera T, Kapička A, Petrovsky E, Strzyszcz Z, Fialova H, Rachwa M (2008) Magnetic anomalies of forest soils in the Upper Silesia–Northern Moravia region. Environ Pollut 156:618–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Marwick B (2005) Element concentrations and magnetic susceptibility of anthrosols: indicators of prehistoric human occupation in the in land Pilbara, Western Australia. J Archeol Sci 32:1357–1368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mathe V, Leveque F (2003) High resolution magnetic survey for soil monitoring: detection of drainage and soil tillage effects. Earth Planet Sci Lett 212:241–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mermut AR, Jain JC, Song L, Kerrich R, Kozak L, Jana L S (1996) Trace element concentrations of selected soils and fertilizers in Saskatchewan, Canada. J Environ Qual 25:845–853CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mico C, Recatala L, Peris M, Sanchez J (2006) Assessing heavy metal sources in agricultural soils of an European Mediterranean area by multivariate analysis. Chemosphere 65:863–872CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mokarram M (2016) Modeling of multiple regression and multiple linear regressions for prediction of groundwater quality (case study: north of Shiraz). Model Earth Syst Environ 2:3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Mokarram M, Najafi-Ghiri M, Negahban S, Roshan G (2016) Relationship between landform and soil salinity in the surface and subsurface soils (case study: Southeast of Fars Province, Iran). Model Earth Syst Environ 2:16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Mokhtari Karchegani P, Ayoubi S, Lu SG, Honarju N (2011) Use of magnetic measures to assess soil redistribution following deforestation in hilly region. J Appl Geophys 75:227–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Naimi S, Ayoubi S (2013) Vertical and horizontal distribution of magnetic susceptibility and metal contents in an industrial district of central Iran. J Appl Geophys 96:55–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Nanos N, Rodríguez Martín JA (2012) Multiscale analysis of heavy metal contents in soils: spatial variability in the Duero river basin (Spain). Geoderma 189–190:554–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Navas A, Machin J (2002) Spatial distribution of heavy metals and arsenic in soils of Aragon (northeast Spain): controlling factors and environmental implications. Appl Geochem 17:961–973CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Nicholson FA, Smith SR, Alloway BJ, Carlton-Smith C, Chambers BJ (2003) An inventory of heavy metals inputs to agricultural soils in England and Wales. Sci Total Environ 311:205–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ozay Tekin H, Uyanoz R (2012) Trace and rarc earth element (REE) status of carsamba fan soils in the ancient Konya lake region, Turkey. Afr J Agric Res 7:1110–1117Google Scholar
  48. Pazand K (2016) Geochemistry and multivariate statistical analysis for fluoride occurrence in groundwater in the Kuhbanan basin, Central Iran. Model Earth Syst Environ (2016) 2:72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Petrovsky E, Kapicka A, Jordanova N, Knab M, Hoffmann V (2000) Low field magnetic susceptibility: a proxy method of estimating increased pollution of different environmental systems. Environ Geol 39:312–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Qishlaqi A, Moore F (2007) Statistical analysis of accumulation and sources of heavy metals occurrence in agricultural soils of Khoshk River banks, Shiraz, Iran. Am Eur J Agric Environ Sci 2:565–573Google Scholar
  51. Rahimi MR, Ayoubi S, Abdi MR (2013) Magnetic susceptibility and Cs-137 inventory variability as influenced by land use change and slope positions in a hilly, semiarid region of west-central Iran. J Appl Geophys 89:68–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Rashed MN (2010) Monitoring of contaminated toxic and heavy metals, from mine tailings through age accumulation, in soil and some wild plants at Southeast Egypt. J Hazard Mater 178:739–746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Rodríguez Martín JA, Lopez Arias M, Grau Corb JM (2006) Heavy metals contents in agricultural top-soils in the Ebro basin (Spain). Application of the multivariate geostatistical methods to study spatial variations. Environ Pollut 144:1001–1012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Romic M, Romic D (2003) Heavy metals distribution in agricultural topsoils in urban area. Environ Geol 43:795–805Google Scholar
  55. Rustullet J (1996) Estudi de sols fersial. lattics de la serralada litoral catalana: Vora NE del Mass del Garraf, Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Barcelona, BarcelonaGoogle Scholar
  56. Seyedmohammadi J, Esmaeelnejad L, Ramezanpour H (2016) Determination of a suitable model for prediction of soil cation exchange capacity. Model Earth Syst Environ 2:156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Singer MJ, Verousb KL, Fine P, Tenpas J (1996) A conceptual model for the enhancement of magnetic susceptibility in soils. Quatern Int 34(36):243–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Strzyszcz Z, Magiera T (1998) Magnetic susceptibility and heavy metals contamination in soils of Southern Poland. Phys Chem Earth 23(9–10):1127–1131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Swan ARH, Sandilands M (1995) Introduction to geological data analysis. Blackwell Science, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  60. Swartjes FA (1999) Risk-based assessment of soil and groundwater quality in the Netherlands: standards and remediation urgency. Risk Anal 19:1235–1249Google Scholar
  61. Taghipour M, Ayoubi S, Khadmei H (2011) Contribution of lithologic and anthropogenic factors to surface soil heavy metals in western Iran using multivariate geostatistical analyses. Soil Sediment Contam 28:921–937CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Valaee M, Ayoubi S, Khormali F, Lu SG, Karimzadeh H (2016) Using magnetic susceptibility to discriminate between soil moisture regimes in selected loess and loess-like soils in northern Iran. J Appl Geophys 127(2):23–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Walkley A, Black AI (1934) An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter, and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Sci 37:29–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Wang XS, Qin Y (2005) Correlation between magnetic susceptibility and heavy metals in urban topsoil: a case study from the city of Xuzhou, China. Environ Geol 49:10–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Zhang C (2006) Using multivariate analyses and GIS to identify pollutants and their spatial patterns in urban soils in Galway, Ireland. Environ Pollut 142:501–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shamsollah Ayoubi
    • 1
  • Mohsen Jabbari
    • 1
  • Hossein Khademi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Soil Science, College of AgricultureIsfahan University of TechnologyIsfahanIran

Personalised recommendations