Modeling Earth Systems and Environment

, Volume 4, Issue 1, pp 161–174 | Cite as

Assessment of manganese contamination in groundwater using frequency ratio (FR) modeling and GIS: a case study on Burdwan district, West Bengal, India

  • Raju Thapa
  • Srimanta Gupta
  • Harjeet Kaur
  • Rupa Mandal
Original Article


In India, groundwater is very crucial natural resources that are extensively used in both urban and rural regions for irrigation and drinking purpose. In the present research work, the potential manganese contamination zones (PMCZ) within Burdwan district was investigated using GIS approach by considering various controlling factors, i.e., geology, soil, rainfall and land use land cover. Frequency ratio modeling was implemented to assign the scores to various input factors and their sub-classes. Model output based on PMCZ is classified into two broad classes, i.e., ‘suitable’ and ‘unsuitable’ where, 63% (4432 km2) and 37% (2607 km2) of the study area account for suitable and unsuitable category, respectively. The PMCZ model output was further validated with 654 reported manganese (Mn) occurrence in groundwater from different location in Burdwan district and it is observed that the model achieved an accuracy of about 75%. Success and prediction rate curve also show an accuracy of 83 and 77%, respectively which indicates that the prediction rate and accuracy rate of model in the prediction of PMCZ is quite high. The ground-truth verification of predicted zones shows an accuracy of 80% in prediction which was carried out by means of groundwater sampling in the study area followed by the Mn estimation in groundwater samples. Majority of high Mn contaminated area fall along the flood plain (Neogene–Pleistocene sediment) of Burdwan district. The outcome of the research work can be helpful in better planning and management of groundwater resources in future.


Groundwater Potential manganese contamination zones Frequency ratio Success and prediction rate Burdwan India 



The authors would like to acknowledge DST, Govt. of India for providing financial support to setup a sophisticated laboratory in the department of Environmental Science under FIST programme. The author would also like to thank the Geological Survey of India (GSI), Central Ground Water Board (CGWB), Survey of India (SoI) for their published information, help and support.

Supplementary material

40808_2018_433_MOESM1_ESM.docx (61 kb)
Supplementary Table 1 Detail report of manganese contamination in groundwater in Burdwan district (DOCX 60 KB)


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental ScienceThe University of BurdwanBurdwanIndia

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