Modeling Earth Systems and Environment

, Volume 4, Issue 1, pp 13–25 | Cite as

Modeling the role of topography on the potential of tourism climate in Iran

  • Mahmoud Ahmadi
  • Mohammad Baaghide
  • AbbasAli Dadashi Roudbari
  • Mehdi Asadi
Original Article


Investigating climatic features of any place can be of considerable contribution to tourism managers and planners in determining and assigning areas for particular kinds of tourism activities. To investigate the role of elevation levels (topography) on Iran tourism climate, meteorological data from 144 synoptic stations were gathered during the (1980–2010) period. Data include: daily mean and daily maximum temperature, daily mean and daily minimum humidity, monthly total precipitation, sunshine hours, and wind speed. Evaluating monthly tourism climate condition was done by using Miskofski Index (TCI); altitudinal diversity of the stations being taken into account, monthly correlations between the differences of climate tourism indexes and elevations were computed using Pearson correlation model at the significant level p value < 0.05.Then comparing the ordinary least square with geographically weighted regression, the best model was selected. Thereafter, considering the result of geographically weighted regression as the best model and using Digital Elevation Model of Iran, different zones for TCI scores were recognized. Categorizing stations was done on the basis of TCI scores, using hierarchical cluster method. The findings showed that elevation has a positive role in increasing TCI scores, only in warm half of the year. The coordinating role of elevations appears in May, so the high index scores are concentrated at high elevation levels of 800 m and more in June, July, August, September, and October. Results of clustering revealed three tourism zones: Winter, Autumn-Spring, and Spring-Summer zones. In general, 6 tourism regions and 12 areas were distinguished.


Tourism Climate Index Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) Cluster method Global Moran’s I Iran 



The authors are grateful to the Islamic Republic of Iran Meteorological Organization (IRIMO) for providing the requisite meteorological data. They wish to express their gratitude to the anonymous reviewers whose suggestions and remarks have greatly helped to improve the quality of the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mahmoud Ahmadi
    • 1
  • Mohammad Baaghide
    • 2
  • AbbasAli Dadashi Roudbari
    • 3
  • Mehdi Asadi
    • 4
  1. 1.Faculty of Earth SciencesShahid Beheshti UniversityTehranIran
  2. 2.Climatology DepartmentHakim Sabzevari UniversitySabzevarIran
  3. 3.Urban ClimatologyShahid Beheshti UniversityTehranIran
  4. 4.Agricultural ClimatologyHakim Sabzevari UniversitySabzevarIran

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