Family Cohesion and the General Factor of Personality: Examining Differences in Monozygotic Twin Pairs
It was recently found that differences between monozygotic twins in the general factor of personality were positively correlated with differences in adulthood recollections of maternal and paternal affection. The current study used data from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study on Aging to possibly replicate and extend these findings. The results were consistent with replication for monozygotic twin pairs who were reared together (base total of 166 pairs), but not for those who were reared apart (base total of 99 pairs). This finding suggests that the effect is due to the relative and not absolute aspects of the familial environment during childhood. Additionally, the general factor of personality was not shown to mediate childhood and adulthood family cohesion. These results suggest that the general factor of personality may have independent effects on recollections of childhood family cohesion and current family cohesion. Thus, both how family dynamics are related to the development of the general factor of personality and how the general factor of personality impacts adulthood family relations (e.g., parenting) are important areas of future inquiry.
KeywordsGeneral factor of personality Monozygotic twins Family cohesion
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Beaver, K. M. (2013). Biosocial criminology: a primer (2nd ed.). Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.Google Scholar
- Bergeman, C. S., Chipuer, H. M., Plomin, R., Pederson, N. L., McClearn, G. E., Nesselroade, J. R., Costa Jr., P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1993). Genetic and environmental effects on openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness: an adoption/twin study. Journal of Personality, 61, 159–179.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dunkel, C. S., Harbke, C. R., & Papini, D. R. (2009). Direct and indirect effects of birth order on personality and identity: support for the null hypothesis. Journal of GeneticPsychology, 170, 159–175.Google Scholar
- Dunkel, C. S., Cabeza de Baca, T., Woodley of Menie, M. A., & Fernandes, H. B. F. (2014). The general factor of personality and general intelligence: testing hypotheses from Differential-K, life history theory, and strategic differentiation-integration effort. Personality and Individual Differences, 62, 13–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Garvus-Ion, A., Sjøvold, T., Hernández, A., González-José, R., Torné, M.E.E., Martínez-Abadías, N., Esparza, M. (2017). Measuring fitness heritability: life history traits versus morphological traits in humans. American Journal of Physical Anthropology https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23271, (Advance on-line publication).
- Jokela, M., Pekkarinen, T., Sarvimäki, M., Terviö, M., & Uusitalo, R. (2017). Secular rise in economically valuable personality traits. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 114, 6527–6532.Google Scholar
- Moos, R. H., & Moos, B. S. (1981). Family environment scale manual. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
- Pedersen, N. L Swedish Adoption/Twin Study on Aging (SATSA). (1984, 1987, 1990, 1993, 2004, 2007, & 2010). ICPSR03843-v2. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2015-05-13. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR03843.v2.
- Preacher, K. J., & Leonardelli, G. J. (2010-2018). Calculation for the Sobel test: an interaction calculation tool for mediation tests. http://www.quantpsy.org/sobel/sobel.htmGoogle Scholar
- Rovine, M. J. (1994). Estimating nonshared environment using sibling discrepancy scores. In E. M. Hetherington, D. Reiss, & R. Plomin (Eds.), Separate social worlds of siblings: the impact of nonshared environment on development (pp. 33–61). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
- Rushton, J. P., & Irwing, P. (2011). The general factor of personality: normal and abnormal. In T. Chamorro-Premuzic, S. von Stumm, & A. Furnham (Eds.), The Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of Individual Differences (pp. 132–161). London: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
- Rushton, J. P., Bons, T. A., Ando, J., Hur, Y. -M., Irwing, P., Vernon, P. A., Petrides, K. V., & Barbaranelli, C. (2009). A general factor of personality from multitrait-multimethod data and cross-national twins. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 12, 356–365.Google Scholar
- Van der Akker, A. L., Deković, M., Asscher, J., & Prinzie, P. (2014). Mean-level personality development across childhood and adolescence: a temporary defiance of the maturity principle and bidirectional associations with parenting. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 107, 736–750.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Van der Linden, D., Te Nijenhuis, J., & Bakker, A. B. (2010). The general factor of personality: a meta-analysis and a criterion-related validity study. Journal of Research in Personality, 44, 315–327.Google Scholar
- Van der Linden, D., Dunkel, C.S., & Petrides, K.V. (2016). The General Factor of Personality (GFP) as social effectiveness: review of the literature. Personality and Individual Differences, 101, 98–105.Google Scholar
- Van der Linden, D., Schermer, J. A., Dunkel, C. S., Pekaar, K. A., Bakker, A. B., Vernon, P. A., & Petrides, K. V. (2018). Overlap between the general factor of personality and trait emotional intelligence: a genetic correlation study. Behavioral Genetics, 48, 147–154.Google Scholar
- Verhage, M. L., Schuengel, C., Madigan, S., Fearon, R. M. P., Oosterman, M., Cassibba, R., et al. (2016). Narrowing the transmission gap: a synthesis of three decades of research on intergenerational transmission of attachment. Psychological Bulletin, 142, 337–366.Google Scholar
- Verweij, K. J., Yang, J., Lahti, J., Veiiola, J., Hintsanen, M., Pulkki-Raback, L., et al. (2012). Maintenance of genetic variation in human personality: testing evolutionary models by estimating heritability due to common causal variants and investigating the effect of distant inbreeding. Evolution, 66, 3238–3251.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar