Table 33 Statistical results for compound gear train problem using CI–SAPF, CI–SAPF–CBO and CBO

From: Cohort intelligence with self-adaptive penalty function approach hybridized with colliding bodies optimization algorithm for discrete and mixed variable constrained problems

Results CI–SAPF CI–SAPF–CBO CBO
Best 2.7E−12 2.7E−12 4.50E−09
Mean 3.97E−11 1.73E−11 1.46E−05
Worst 6.60E−10 2.31E−11 7.06E−05
Std. Dev 5.26E−12 9.55E−12 3.13E−05
Avg. CPU time \((\rm sec)\) 3.12 2.17 0.03
Avg. function evaluations 8513 6358 102