Table 27 Statistical results for tension–compression helical spring problem using CI–SAPF, CI–SAPF–CBO and CBO

From: Cohort intelligence with self-adaptive penalty function approach hybridized with colliding bodies optimization algorithm for discrete and mixed variable constrained problems

Results CI–SAPF CI–SAPF–CBO CBO
Best 2.6586 2.6586 3.2440
Mean 2.6601 2.6594 4.1223
Worst 2.6722 2.6630 5.5331
Std. Dev 0.0032 0.0014 0.8765
Avg. CPU time \((\rm sec)\) 2.05 2.02 0.04
Avg. function evaluations 3030 2991 65