Management of Hematuria in Children
Purpose of Review
This paper provides a review of the diagnostic evaluation of both microscopic and gross hematuria, as well as an update on the pathogenesis, clinical features, and treatment strategies for several diseases of the kidneys and urinary tract in which hematuria is a prominent finding. The goal is to provide pediatric providers with a framework through which appropriate and expeditious referral to subspecialty care may be made for definitive treatment.
Although there has been great heterogeneity in published treatment strategies for many causes of hematuria, the Kidney Diseases Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) initiative has recently set forth guidelines for glomerular diseases in particular to provide evidence-based strategies for treatment. In addition, recent advances in the understanding of molecular pathogenesis and long-term clinical outcomes for other non-glomerular diseases have led to updates in treatment strategies summarized in this review.
As the pediatric primary care provider is often the first point of contact for children with microscopic or gross hematuria, updated knowledge as to the epidemiology and management of several of the various causes of hematuria will improve the care of children by both avoiding extraneous testing and interventions and implementing definitive care (either by expectant management and reassurance or by subspecialty referral) in a timely manner.
KeywordsMicroscopic hematuria Gross hematuria Glomerular diseases Structural renal disease
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
O. N. Ray Bignall II and Bradley P. Dixon declare no conflicts of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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