Corrosion Behavior of Mg–Zn–Ca–Mn Alloy Coated with Nano-hydroxyapatite by Cyclic Voltammetry Method

Abstract

Coating and alloying are the two possible solutions for enhancing the corrosion resistance of magnesium. Nanostructured hydroxyapatite (n-HA) was coated on Mg–1% Zn–0.5% Ca–0.2% Mn by cyclic voltammetry method to increase its biocompatibility and bioactivity alongside corrosion resistance. XRD and EDS analyses approved the formation of hydroxyapatite. A central composite design (CCD) coupled with response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the four selected variables. Corrosion current density obtained from polarization tests in the simulated body fluid (SBF) was considered as the main response for optimization. The experimental values were fitted well by the derived model (R2 = 96.8%). The proposed optimum condition was − 1.4 V, 75 °C, 7 cycles, and 0.05 M for the start potential, temperature, cycle number and concentration of NaNO3, respectively. The corrosion current density of the sample made at the optimum condition was decreased around 90% compared with the bare one (1423 µA/cm2 to 136 µA/cm2). The FESEM images confirmed the formation of n-HA coating on magnesium alloy. The best coating adhesion among all samples was determined to be 4.52 MPa. Finally, the EIS test confirmed the results of previous corrosion experiments. The corrosion resistance of the optimized sample was measured to be about 2000 Ω cm2.

Graphic Abstract

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16
Fig. 17
Fig. 18
Fig. 19
Fig. 20

References

  1. 1.

    Pompa L, Rahman ZU, Munoz E, Haider W (2015) Surface characterization and cytotoxicity response of biodegradable magnesium alloys. Mater Sci Eng C 49:761–768. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2015.01.017

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Mhaede M, Pastorek F, Hadzima B (2014) Influence of shot peening on corrosion properties of biocompatible magnesium alloy AZ31 coated by dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD). Mater Sci Eng C 39:330–335. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2014.03.023

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Agarwal S, Curtin J, Duffy B, Jaiswal S (2016) Biodegradable magnesium alloys for orthopaedic applications: a review on corrosion, biocompatibility and surface modi fi cations. Mater Sci Eng C 68:948–963. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2016.06.020

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Dunne CF, Levy GK, Hakimi O et al (2016) Corrosion behaviour of biodegradable magnesium alloys with hydroxyapatite coatings. Surf Coat Technol. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2016.01.045

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    İbrahim Coşkun M, Karahan İH, Yücel Y, Golden TD (2016) Optimization of electrochemical step deposition for bioceramic hydroxyapatite coatings on CoCrMo implants. Surf Coat Technol 301:42–53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2015.12.076

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Wen C, Guan S, Peng L et al (2009) Characterization and degradation behavior of AZ31 alloy surface modified by bone-like hydroxyapatite for implant applications. Appl Surf Sci 255:6433–6438. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2008.09.078

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Acheson JG, Mckillop S, Lemoine P et al (2019) Materialia control of magnesium alloy corrosion by bioactive calcium phosphate coating: implications for resorbable orthopaedic implants. Materialia 6:100291. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mtla.2019.100291

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Witte F, Kaese V, Haferkamp H et al (2005) In vivo corrosion of four magnesium alloys and the associated bone response. Biomaterials 26:3557–3563. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2004.09.049

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Xu L, Yu G, Zhang E et al (2007) In vivo corrosion behavior of Mg–Mn–Zn alloy for bone implant application. J Biomed Mater Res A. https://doi.org/10.1002/jbm.a.31273

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Zhang E, Yin D, Xu L et al (2009) Microstructure, mechanical and corrosion properties and biocompatibility of Mg–Zn–Mn alloys for biomedical application. Mater Sci Eng C 29:987–993. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2008.08.024

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Gu XN, Zheng YF (2010) A review on magnesium alloys as biodegradable materials. Front Mater Sci China 4:111–115. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11706-010-0024-1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Song G (2007) Control of biodegradation of biocompatable magnesium alloys. Corros Sci 49:1696–1701. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.corsci.2007.01.001

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Zivić F, Grujović N, Manivasagam G et al (2014) The potential of magnesium alloys as bioabsorbable/biodegradable implants for biomedical applications. Tribol Ind 36:67–73

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Zhang E, Yang L (2008) Microstructure, mechanical properties and bio-corrosion properties of Mg–Zn–Mn–Ca alloy for biomedical application. Mater Sci Eng A 497:111–118. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2008.06.019

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Sun Y, Zhang B, Wang Y et al (2012) Preparation and characterization of a new biomedical Mg–Zn–Ca alloy. J Mater 34:58–64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2011.07.058

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Aljihmani L, Alic L, Boudjemline Y et al (2019) Magnesium-based bioresorbable stent materials: review of reviews. J Bio Tribo Corros. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40735-019-0216-x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Yandong Y, Shuzhen K, Teng P et al (2015) Effects of Mn addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of as-cast and heat-treated Mg–Zn–Ca bio-magnesium alloy. Metallogr Microstruct Anal 4:381–391. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13632-015-0224-2

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Yin P, Li NF, Lei T, Liu LO, C, (2013) Effects of Ca on microstructure, mechanical and corrosion properties and biocompatibility of Mg–Zn–Ca alloys. Mater Sci Mater Med 24:1365–1373

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Sezer N, Evis Z, Murat S et al (2018) Review of magnesium-based biomaterials and their applications. J Magnes Alloy 6:23–43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jma.2018.02.003

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Seyedraoufi ZS, Mirdamadi S (2014) Effects of pulse electrodeposition parameters and alkali treatment on the properties of nano hydroxyapatite coating on porous Mg–Zn scaffold for bone tissue engineering application. Mater Chem Phys 148:519–527. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matchemphys.2014.06.067

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Mahapatro A, Arshanapalli SA (2017) Bioceramic coatings on magnesium alloys. J Bio Tribo Corros 3:1–9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40735-017-0099-7

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Gopi D, Indira J, Kavitha L (2012) A comparative study on the direct and pulsed current electrodeposition of hydroxyapatite coatings on surgical grade stainless steel. Surf Coat Technol 206:2859–2869. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2011.12.011

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Mukhametkaliyev TM, Surmeneva MA, Vladescu A et al (2017) A biodegradable AZ91 magnesium alloy coated with a thin nanostructured hydroxyapatite for improving the corrosion resistance. Mater Sci Eng C. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2017.02.033

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Hornberger H, Virtanen S, Boccaccini AR (2012) Biomedical coatings on magnesium alloys—a review. Acta Biomater 8:2442–2455. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2012.04.012

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Song YW, Shan DY, Han EH (2008) Electrodeposition of hydroxyapatite coating on AZ91D magnesium alloy for biomaterial application. Mater Lett 62:3276–3279. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2008.02.048

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Jamesh M, Kumar S, Narayanan TSNS (2012) Electrodeposition of hydroxyapatite coating on magnesium for biomedical applications. J Coat Technol Res 9:495–502. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11998-011-9382-6

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Kannan MB (2016) Electrochemical deposition of calcium phosphates on magnesium and its alloys for improved biodegradation performance: a review. Surf Coat Technol 301:36–41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2015.12.044

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Wang HX, Guan SK, Wang X et al (2010) In vitro degradation and mechanical integrity of Mg–Zn–Ca alloy coated with Ca-deficient hydroxyapatite by the pulse electrodeposition process. Acta Biomater 6:1743–1748. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2009.12.009

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Kim Y, Jung J, Kim S, Chae WS (2013) Cyclic voltammetric and chronoamperometric deposition of CdS. Mater Trans 54:1467–1472. https://doi.org/10.2320/matertrans.M2013125

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Hezard T, Fajerwerg K, Evrard D et al (2012) Gold nanoparticles electrodeposited on glassy carbon using cyclic voltammetry: application to Hg(II) trace analysis. J Electroanal Chem 664:46–52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelechem.2011.10.014

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Joseph S, McClure JC, Chianelli R et al (2005) Conducting polymer-coated stainless steel bipolar plates for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). Int J Hydrog Energy 30:1339–1344. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2005.04.011

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Thanh DTM, Nam PT, Phuong NT et al (2013) Controlling the electrodeposition, morphology and structure of hydroxyapatite coating on 316L stainless steel. Mater Sci Eng C 33:2037–2045. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2013.01.018

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Tzaneva B, Todorov G, Dimitrova R (2018) Chemical and electrochemical growth of hydroxyapatite on 3D machined titanium alloy. In: International conference on high technology for sustainable development HiTech 2018—proceedings, pp 1–4. https://doi.org/10.1109/HiTech.2018.8566431

  34. 34.

    Saremi M, Mohajernia S, Hejazi S (2014) Controlling the degradation rate of AZ31 magnesium alloy and purity of nano-hydroxyapatite coating by pulse electrodeposition. Mater Lett 129:111–113. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2014.05.050

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Mohajernia S, Hejazi S, Eslami A, Saremi M (2015) Modified nanostructured hydroxyapatite coating to control the degradation of magnesium alloy AZ31 in simulated body fluid. Surf Coat Technol 263:54–60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2014.12.059

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Chen J, Tan L, Yang K (2016) Recent advances on the development of biodegradable magnesium alloys: a review. Mater Technol 31:681–688. https://doi.org/10.1080/10667857.2016.1212587

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Song Y, Zhang S, Li J et al (2010) Acta Biomaterialia Electrodeposition of Ca–P coatings on biodegradable Mg alloy: in vitro biomineralization behavior q. Acta Biomater 6:1736–1742. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2009.12.020

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Su Y, Li D, Su Y et al (2016) Improvement of the biodegradation property and biomineralization ability of magnesium–hydroxyapatite composites with dicalcium phosphate dihydrate and hydroxyapatite coatings. ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2:818–828. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsbiomaterials.6b00013

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Chandrasekar MS, Pushpavanam M (2008) Pulse and pulse reverse plating—conceptual, advantages and applications. Electrochim Acta 53:3313–3322. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2007.11.054

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Brundavanam S, Eddy G, Poinern J, Fawcett D (2014) Growth of flower-like brushite structures on magnesium substrates and their subsequent low temperature transformation to hydroxyapatite. Am J Biomed Eng 4:79–87. https://doi.org/10.5923/j.ajbe.20140404.02

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Pabst W, Uhlířová T (2017) A generalized class of transformation matrices for the reconstruction of sphere size distributions from section circle size distributions. Ceram Silik 61:147–157. https://doi.org/10.13168/cs.2017.0010

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Kumar M, Dasarathy H, Riley C (1999) Electrodeposition of brushite coatings and their transformation to hydroxyapatite in aqueous solutions. J Biomed Mater Res 45:302–310. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-4636(19990615)45:4%3c302::AID-JBM4%3e3.0.CO;2-A

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Kannan MB, Walter R, Yamamoto A (2016) Biocompatibility and in vitro degradation behavior of magnesium–calcium alloy coated with calcium phosphate using an unconventional electrolyte. ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2:56–64. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsbiomaterials.5b00343

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Gopi D, Karthika A, Nithiya S, Kavitha L (2014) In vitro biological performance of minerals substituted hydroxyapatite coating by pulsed electrodeposition method. Mater Chem Phys 144:75–85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matchemphys.2013.12.017

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Wang C, Jiang B, Liu M, Ge Y (2015) Corrosion characterization of micro-arc oxidization composite electrophoretic coating on AZ31B magnesium alloy. J Alloys Compd 621:53–61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2014.09.168

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Cheng Z, Lian J, Hui Y, Li G (2014) Biocompatible DCPD coating formed on AZ91d magnesium alloy by chemical deposition and its corrosion behaviors in SBF. J Bionic Eng 11:610–619. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1672-6529(14)60072-X

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to S. Hadi Tabaian.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Gitiara, A., Tabaian, S.H. Corrosion Behavior of Mg–Zn–Ca–Mn Alloy Coated with Nano-hydroxyapatite by Cyclic Voltammetry Method. J Bio Tribo Corros 7, 45 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40735-020-00452-w

Download citation

Keywords

  • Magnesium
  • Coating
  • Nano-hydroxyapatite
  • Biodegradable
  • RSM
  • Cyclic voltammetry