Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma

, Volume 11, Issue 1, pp 27–37 | Cite as

Retrospective Experiences of Cyberbullying and Emotional Outcomes on Young Adults Who Stutter

  • Stephanie Nicolai
  • Robert Geffner
  • Ronald Stolberg
  • J. Scott Yaruss
ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Abstract

The objective of this quantitative research study was to identify and examine psychological effects on adults who stutter who were cyberbullied as an adolescent, specifically looking at depression, anxiety, and stress levels. Using survey methodology, a two-way between-groups multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was utilized to determine if young adults who stutter and were cyberbullied in middle and/or high school express current depression, anxiety, or stress levels as compared to three other groups (no cyberbullying and no stuttering; cyberbullying and no stuttering; and no cyberbullying and stuttering). This study used the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS) instrument in an online survey format to determine which, if any, lasting psychological stressors were found. Results indicate that the cyberbullied and stuttering group have significantly higher anxiety levels compared to the three additional groups, significantly higher depression levels compared to the group with no cyberbullying and no stuttering, and significantly higher stress levels compared to the groups with stuttering and no cyberbullying and no cyberbullying and no stuttering. This research indicates the effects that cyberbullying can have on mental health, and additionally the negative effect that stuttering can have on a person’s overall mental health as well.

Keywords

Bullying Stress Anxiety Depression Speech disorders Quality of life 

Notes

Acknowledgements

I would like to acknowledge the people who helped make not only this research a possibility, but more importantly helped make me professionally and personally successful. My Mom and Dad, my husband, and my research committee; Thank you for your unconditional support. Lastly, I dedicate this research to anyone who has been victimized via any form of bullying. You were and are the motivation for all my work.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Disclosure of Interest

All authors declare that they have no conflicts to report.

Ethical Standards and Informed Consent

All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation [institutional and national] and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000. Informed consent was obtained from all patients for being included in the study.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Clinical Psychology DepartmentAlliant International UniversitySan DiegoUSA
  2. 2.San DiegoUSA
  3. 3.University of PittsburghPittsburghUSA
  4. 4.Michigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA

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