Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma

, Volume 11, Issue 1, pp 49–59 | Cite as

Longitudinal Relations among Cyber, Physical, and Relational Bullying and Victimization: Comparing Majority and Minority Ethnic Youth

  • Christopher P. Barlett
  • Michelle F. Wright


Findings from myriad studies have shown that cyberbullying perpetration is significantly positively correlated with relational and physical bullying perpetration in youth. Furthermore, similar trends have been found for victimization type. Despite the wealth of research testing the predictors of both cyberbullying perpetration and victimization, few studies have tested whether belonging to an ethnic minority moderates these effects. The current study sampled 828 youth in the United States. All participants completed measures of cyber, relational, and physical bullying perpetration and victimization two times during the school year. We classified youth into majority (Caucasian) and minority (non-Caucasian) groups based on the ethnicity makeup of the sample. Results showed that majority participants reported less physical bullying, more physical victimization at Time 1, more cyberbullying perpetration at Time 1, more frequency cyberbullying victimization at both data collection times, and higher relational victimization at Time 1. Subsequent longitudinal grouped path model results showed that participant group status (majority vs. minority ethnicity) moderated the relation between Time 1 physical bullying and Time 2 cyberbullying perpetration, the relationship between Time 1 cybervictimization and Time 2 cyberbullying, and the relationship between Time 1 relational victimization and cyber victimization We believe these results highlight the importance of testing ethnicity as a potential moderator in the literature examining predictors of both cyber bullying perpetration and victimization.


Cyberbullying Bullying Longitudinal Ethnicity 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Gettysburg CollegeGettysburgUSA
  2. 2.Pennsylvania State UniversityState CollegeUSA

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