Unveiling Charles II, the last King of the Habsburg Spanish Empire, in a portrait by Juan Carreño de Miranda (1685)



Charles II (1661–1700) was the last King of the Habsburg dynasty. He was physically and mentally disabled and died at just 39 years old. Here, the authors attempt to investigate the correlations between his signs and symptoms and the physical appearance on the painting.


Charles II has been portraited by Juan Carreño de Miranda in a painting that may provide precious information about his premature death.


It has been suggested that inbreeding beside other endocrinological disorders were of the major causes responsible for illness and ultimately his death.


Possible endocrinological diseases have been hypothesized.

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Fig. 1


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Correspondence to P. Sadeghi.

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Sadeghi, P., Sisti, A. Unveiling Charles II, the last King of the Habsburg Spanish Empire, in a portrait by Juan Carreño de Miranda (1685). J Endocrinol Invest (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40618-020-01333-2

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  • Growth hormone deficiency
  • Pituitary hormonal disorders
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type IIb
  • Consanguineous marriage
  • Inbreeding