Association between vitamin D deficiency and common variants of Vitamin D binding protein gene among Mexican Mestizo and indigenous postmenopausal women



Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and polymorphisms in the group-specific component (GC) gene are known to be associated in different populations. However, the effects of such genetic variants may vary across different populations. Thus, the objective of this study was to estimate the association between Vitamin D-Binding Protein (VDBP) haplotypes and VDD in mestizo postmenopausal women and Mexican Amerindian ethnic groups.


This was a cross-sectional study of 726 postmenopausal Mexican women from the Health Workers Cohort Study (HWCS) and 166 postmenopausal women from the Metabolic Analysis in an Indigenous Sample (MAIS) cohort in Mexico. GC polymorphisms (rs7045 and rs4588) were analyzed by TaqMan probes. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels were measured by Chemiluminescent Microparticle Immuno Assay.


The prevalence of VDD serum 25(OH)D < 20 ng/mL was 43.7% in mestizo women and 44.6% in indigenous women. In HWCS, the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs7041 and rs4588 were associated with VDD. In addition, women from the HWCS, carrying the haplotypes GC2/2 and GC1f/2 had higher odds of VDD (OR = 2.83, 95% CI 1.14, 7.02; and OR = 2.30, 95% CI 1.40, 3.78, respectively) compared to women with haplotype 1f/1 s. These associations were not statistically significant in the MAIS cohort.


Our results show genetic association of the analyzed SNPs and related haplotypes, on the GC gene, with VDD in mestizo Mexican postmenopausal women. Moreover, a high prevalence of VDD with high genetic variability within the country was observed. Our results support the need for national policies for preventing VDD.

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We would like to sincerely thank the Health Workers Cohort Study team and the study population for their participation. We also acknowledge the Technical Assistance provided by Jeny Flores Morales (Instituto Nacional de Medicina Genomica, INMEGEN). This work was supported by grants from the Mexican Council of Science and Technology (CONACyT): Grant INFR-2016-01-270405; Hospital Infantil de México, Grant HIM-2016-107 and partially supported by the Instituto Nacional de Medicina Genómica project 399-07/2019/I. The MAIS cohort study was supported by CONACyT Grant S008-2014-1-233970. Berenice Rivera-Paredez is a doctoral student from the Doctoral Program in Epidemiology at Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública (INSP), and received fellowship from the CONACYT. The funding support had no role in the design, analysis or writing of this article.

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Correspondence to R. Velázquez-Cruz.

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Rivera-Paredez, B., Hidalgo-Bravo, A., de la Cruz-Montoya, A. et al. Association between vitamin D deficiency and common variants of Vitamin D binding protein gene among Mexican Mestizo and indigenous postmenopausal women. J Endocrinol Invest 43, 935–946 (2020).

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  • Vitamin D deficiency
  • Polymorphisms
  • Haplotype
  • Mexican
  • Mestizo
  • Amerindians